27 de ago de 2018

Kernicterus in an Adult Dog

Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2018. 46(Suppl 1): 250.


Luciana Sonne , Djeison Lutier Raymundo , Bianca Santana de Cecco , Adriana da Silva Santos , Caroline Argenta Pescador , Eduardo Conceição de Oliveira1 & David Driemeier

Background: Kernicterus or bilirubin encephalopathy is a condition rarely observed in animal characterized by a yellowish discoloration of the central nervous system. It is a potentially fatal condition due to bilirubin neurotoxic effects caused by the increase of non-conjugated bilirubin pigment, which passes blood brain barrier and has been attributed to an imbalance between albumin and bilirubin levels. Intracellular bilirubin is toxic for cells and can cause decrease in protein synthesis, specially albumin, depression of cell respiration and cellular death. This paper describes kernicterus in a 2-year-old Great Dane female dog. 
Case: Clinically, the animal showed apathy, lethargy, weight loss and jaundice, which progressed to vomiting and neurological signs characterized by loss of consciousness and eventually coma. Blood parameters were within normal range, except for high levels of alanine aminotransferase (523 U/L), suggesting a liver lesion. The animal was submitted to euthanasia due to the poor prognosis, and at post-mortem examination it showed dehydration and severe jaundice, especially oral, vaginal and ocular mucosas, subcutaneous tissue and blood vessels intima surface. The liver had an accentuated lobular pattern, and the stomach mucosa was reddened. Multiple petechiae were observed in the epicardium, as well as icterus in the blood vessels of the heart. Furthermore, the brain and cerebellum cortex, thalamic region and nuclei region of brainstem showed extensive icteric areas. Microscopically, the liver presented a mononuclear portal hepatitis, centrilobular necrosis and presence of yellowish pigments. The brain had neuronal necrosis, mild vacuolization of the white matter, perineuronal edema and Alzheimer type II astrocytes, while cerebellum showed Purkinje cells necrosis. Hepatic cooper measurement was within range values, and direct imunofluorescence for the detection of Leptospira sp. was negative. 
Discussion: Kernicterus pathogenesis has been extensively studied, as the condition is commonly seen in neonatal humans. Diagnosis is based on gross and microscopic lesions in brain, which are consistent with bilirubin encephalopathy caused by the necrosis and degeneration of neurons. This condition is related to cases of intense hyperbilirubinemia, which exceeds the albumin binding capacity and, therefore, the excess of unconjugated bilirubin that can pass through the blood brain barrier. Liver disease causes deficient production of protein, especially albumin, decreasing the potential binding capacity to bilirubin, and consequently causing hyperbilirubinemia. In this case, the previously detected hepatic lesion suggested by liver enzymes increased, probably led to protein production dysfunction, causing hypoalbuminemia and hyperbilirubinemia. Unfortunately, albumin and bilirubin seric levels could not be measured. Decrease in albumin production along with the excess of unconjugated bilirubin caused the jaundice, and in cases like this one described, the blood brain barrier is compromised and the kernicterus occurs. Unconjugated bilirubin has negative effect in the glutamate uptake causing extracellular accumulation of it, which is consequently neurotoxic, causing necrosis and degeneration leading to a characteristic encephalopathy in animals with kernicterus. In this report, it was not possible to determine the primary hepatic disease, however this caused clinical neurotoxic disease, known as bilirubin encephalopathy.

24 de ago de 2018

Surgical Excision of an Osteochondroma in a Nerve Root of the Cauda Equina of a Dog

Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2018. 46(Suppl 1): 327


Juliana Campos de Barros , Larissa Garbelini Valentim , Raira Costa Dias , Alfredo Hajime Tanaka Pereira , Giovana Wingeter Di Santis & Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias


Background: Spinal neoplasms are classified into extradural, intradural/extramedullary or intramedullary. Intradural/extramedullary tumors include meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors, which arise from meninges or peripheral nerves around the spinal cord. Clinical signs are related to dysfunction of the involved nerve and include pain, nerve root signature and atrophy. Osteochondromas are benign tumors located within the bone, on its surface or in extra-osseous regions, when they are classified as soft tissue osteochondoma. The aim of this study is to describe a case of an osteochondroma in a nervous root of the cauda equina in a dog, whose surgical resection allowed the resolution of the clinical signs.
Case: A 12-year-old, male, Labrador Retriever dog, was presented with a 40-day history of progressive, painful, pelvic limb paresis, with no improvement when treated with analgesics and acupuncture. Neurological abnormalities included paraparesis, sometimes worse in the left pelvic limb, that was carried flexed at the level of the stifle, hindlimb atrophy, decreased interdigital reflexes and pain in the lumbar spinal region, mainly over L6 vertebra. Results of blood count and serum biochemical analysis were unremarkable. Computed tomography (CT) of the lumbosacral area was performed and the evaluation of images in transverse and reconstructed dorsal and sagittal planes allowed the visualization of a hyperattenuating and calcified round structure with 8 mm x 6 mm, in the left side of vertebral canal, at the level of caudal epiphysis of L6. Lumbosacral (L7-S1) CT abnormalities, as subchondral sclerosis, mild disc margin bulging, spondylosis deformans and foraminal proliferation were also observed but were considered clinically insignificant. Then, a dorsal L6 laminectomy was performed and after opening of the vertebral canal it was observed the presence of an ovoid mass, in the left side of the medullary cone, measuring approximately 0.9 cm in length, originating from a sacral nerve root. This structure was excised and submitted to histopathological evaluation. The dog improved after surgery without any complications, and neurological functions were gradually recovered. The histopathology of the mass was confirmed as an osteochondroma. Discussion: The history and neurologic examination findings as well the improvement after surgery were compatible with the lesion visualized by TC in L6, rather than the degenerative changes in L7-S1. Regarding the position of the mass, the main differential would be nerve sheath tumor, one of the most common types of primary neoplasia of the peripheral nervous system, however in a CT study in dogs with brachial plexus and nerve roots neoplasms, calcification of the tumor was not observed. Most of benign cartilaginous tumors of soft tissue are chondromas/osteochondromas, and this lesion should not be confused with multiple osteochondroma or multiple cartilaginous exostoses, which have been reported as multifocal, proliferative lesions involving the surface of ribs, vertebrae and pelvis of young dogs. If this lesion is unique, it is called osteochondroma. There are two reports of chondromas into the first lumbar vertebrae of dogs, with adherence to the floor of the vertebral canal and one report of an osteochondroma originated from the left pedicle of T11 in a cat. Radiculopathy and myelopathy caused by osteochondromas inside the spine are rare in humans and description of this tumor arising from nerve roots were not found in the veterinary literature. Probably the origin of the mass was metaplasia of the meninges surrounding the nervous root. In conclusion, neurological examination, CT and surgical exploration allowed the diagnosis and removal of a soft tissue osteochondroma, a rare benign tumor, with good patient recovery

21 de ago de 2018

Doenças do sistema nervoso central em cães

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 38(5):935-948, maio 2018


Maria T.S. Frade, Jefferson S. Ferreira , Maria J.R. Nascimento , Vitória V.F. Aquino , Isabel L. Macêdo , Rosileide S. Carneiro , Almir P. Souza e Antônio F.M. Dantas

RESUMO: São descritas doenças do sistema nervoso central (SNC) em cães diagnosticadas no sertão da Paraíba. Os registros de necropsia de 1.205 cães foram revisados. Em 354 casos (29,38%) foram registrados história clínica de alterações do sistema nervoso. Duzentos e noventa e seis casos tiveram diagnóstico definitivo e 58 foram inconclusivos. As doenças infecciosas foram observadas em 59,60% (211/354) de casos que representam a principal causa de distúrbios neurológicos; 53% dos casos (186/354) foram representadas por doenças virais; 3,11% (11/354) foram de etiologia parasitária, 2,54% (9/354) foram causadas por bactérias e 1,41% (5/354) por fungos. Os agentes físicos representaram a segunda causa mais importante de transtornos do SNC com 9,89% (35/354) e os tumores a terceira causa com 5,93% (21/354). Outras alterações pouco frequentes foram alterações metabólicas secundárias a insuficiência hepática ou renal, representando 2,54% (9/354). Casos raros de hidrocefalia congênita foram observados, 1,41% (5/354). Os casos de manifestações neurológicas associadas a alterações vasculares, degenerativas e inflamatórias não infecciosas, muitas das quais uma causa específica não foi estabelecida representaram 4,24% (15/354); Estavam dentro das seguintes categorias de doenças: Infartos isquêmicos e hemorrágicos (6/15), necrose vascular fibrinoide (5/15), doença do disco intervertebral (2/15), meningoencefalite granulomatosa (1/15) e granuloma de colesterol (1/15). Os distúrbios do sistema nervoso central representam uma importante causa de morte ou eutanásia em cães na região semiárida da Paraíba. Os sinais clínicos variaram de acordo com o agente envolvido, localização e distribuição das lesões. O conhecimento dos principais agentes que pode afetar o SNC canino é importante ao fazer uma lista de diagnóstico diferencial.

17 de ago de 2018

Estabilização vertebral segmentar modificada no tratamento de trauma medular em ouriço-cacheiro (Coendou spinosus): relato de caso

Arq. Bras. Med.Vet. Zootec., v.70, n.4, p.1221-1226, 2018


N.J. Tagliari , B.Z. Silva , E.A.R. Santos , M.E. Baier , P.C.S. Gonzalez , M.M. Alievi

RESUMO: Uma fêmea, adulta, de ouriço-cacheiro (Coendou spinosus, F. Cuvier, 1823), foi atendida com histórico de trauma medular. No exame neurológico, foi constatada paraplegia com nocicepção preservada e sinais compatíveis com choque espinhal. Exame radiográfico e mielografia apontaram presença de fratura e luxação vertebral torácica entre T10-11. O paciente foi submetido à técnica de estabilização vertebral segmentar modificada, com pinos de Steinmann e fios de cerclagem. A técnica utilizada mostrou-se eficaz na estabilização da fratura/luxação vertebral e na recuperação dos sinais neurológicos. O paciente apresentou recuperação progressiva da deambulação. Para o conhecimento dos autores, este é o primeiro relato utilizando estabilização vertebral segmentar modificada para o tratamento de fratura/luxação vertebral torácica em Coendou spinosus.

13 de ago de 2018

Modalidades fisioterapêuticas na reabilitação de cães com doença do disco intervertebral toracolombar submetidos à cirurgia descompressiva: 30 casos (2008-2016)

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.70, n.4, p.1089-1098, 2018


A.O. Andrades, G. Aiello , A.C.T. Colvero , D.A. Ferrarin , L. Schneider , A. Ripplinger1 , M.L. Schwab , A. Mazzanti

Este estudo retrospectivo teve como objetivo demonstrar as modalidades fisioterapêuticas empregadas no tratamento de cães com doença do disco intervertebral (DDIV) toracolombar após descompressão cirúrgica da medula espinhal, bem como relatar os fatores que determinaram as alterações das modalidades. Foram incluídos 30 cães que apresentavam sinais neurológicos desde paraparesia ambulatória a paraplegia com dor profunda na primeira sessão de fisioterapia. As modalidades utilizadas nos protocolos de todos os pacientes foram a crioterapia, massagem, alongamento passivo, movimentação passiva articular, estímulo do reflexo flexor e estimulação elétrica neuromuscular. A inclusão ou exclusão de exercícios terapêuticos, como a tipoia corporal, a plataforma proprioceptiva circular, a natação, a hidroesteira, os obstáculos e a caminhada em colchão, foi de acordo com a evolução clínica e a adaptação de cada paciente. Oitenta por cento (80%) dos cães alteraram o grau de disfunção neurológica antes de iniciar a fisioterapia e 93% retornaram à habilidade de caminhar (paraparesia ambulatória) ao final da fisioterapia. O número de sessões e o tempo de recuperação foram maiores quanto pior foi o grau de lesão do paciente.

8 de ago de 2018

Complicações observadas em cães e gatos com doenças neurológicas

Complications observed in dogs and cats with neurological diseases

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 38(6):1159-1171, junho 2018


Marina B. Santoro e Mônica V. Bahr Arias

RESUMO: Cães e gatos com problemas neurológicos estão sujeitos a várias sequelas e complicações, em decorrência das deficiências motoras, sensoriais e viscerais. Algumas complicações estão relacionadas a maior mortalidade, principalmente aquelas relacionadas ao trauma vertebromedular. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar nessas espécies a frequência do aparecimento de complicações, a epidemiologia, localização da lesão e etiologia, avaliando ainda a evolução e o tempo de sobrevida. Foram acompanhados 100 cães e gatos com doenças neurológicas trazidos para atendimento no Serviço de Neurologia do Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Estadual de Londrina. Observou-se que 91% dos animais desenvolveram complicações, sendo que as mais frequentes foram atrofia muscular (n=32), retenção urinária (n=24), incontinência urinária (n=24), incontinência fecal (n=17) e feridas de decúbito (n=16). O principal local de lesão associado ao aparecimento das complicações foi medula espinhal (91,3%) e a principal etiologia foi o trauma vertebromedular (37,3%). O tempo mediano e médio de vida estimado foram, respectivamente, dois e sete meses sendo que as principais causas de morte ou eutanásia estavam relacionadas ao trauma vertebromedular, trauma cranioencefálico ou doença inflamatória/infecciosa. O tempo de vida estimado foi menor para animais mais velhos e mais pesados. Embora o índice de sobrevivência dos animais com complicações tenha sido alto, muitos permaneceram com sequelas, indicando que a sobrevivência não significou capacidade funcional normal. Cães e gatos com problemas neurológicos requerem alto grau de atenção do veterinário e de seus tutores, sendo fundamental a orientação a respeito da real expectativa de recuperação e das dificuldades de manejo que poderão ser encontradas no curso da doença.

ABSTRACT:  Dogs and cats with neurological diseases can show several sequelae and complications asa result of motor, sensory and visceral deficiencies. Some complications are an important cause of mortality, mainly complications related to spinal cord injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate in 100 dogs and cats brought to the Neurology Service of Veterinary Hospital from Universidade Estadual de Londrina the frequency of complications, epidemiology, lesion localization and etiology, still assessing the evolution and survival time. It was observed that 91% of the animals developed complications. The most frequent were muscular atrophy (n=32), urinary retention (n=24), urinary incontinence (n=24), fecal incontinence (n=17) and pressure sores (n=16). The main site of injury associated with the onset of complications was spinal cord (91%) and the main cause was the spinal cord trauma (37.3%). The median survival time of animals with complications was two months and the mean was seven months. The main causes of death or euthanasia were related do spinal cord trauma, traumatic brain injury or inflammatory/infectious disease. The estimated lifetime was lower for older and heavier animals. Although the survival rate of animals with complications was high, most of them remained with sequelae, indicating that survival does not mean normal functional capacity. Dogs and cats with neurological problems require a high degree of attention of the veterinarian and their guardians, and guidelines regarding the real expectation of recovery and management difficulties that may be encountered in the course of the disease are essential.

6 de ago de 2018





Curtis W. DeweyProfessor Associado e Chefe da Seção de Neurologia/Neurocirurgia da Cornell University; Christine Thomson, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Department of Veterinary Medicine e  Ronaldo Casimiro da Costa, autores dos livros abaixo:

30 de jul de 2018

Dantrolene e células-tronco mesenquimais promovem melhora funcional em ratos Wistar com trauma espinhal agudo

Dantrolene and mesenchymal stem cells promote functional improvement in Wistar rats with spinal cord injury.

Bruno B.J. Torres, Bernardo C. Martins , Carla Maria O. Silva , Mário Sérgio L. Lavor , Sandro Coelho , Gabriela F. Siano e Eliane G. Melo


Pesq. Vet. Bras. 38(4):703-709, abril 2018

RESUMO: Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do dantrolene (DAN) e das células-tronco mesenquimais (CTM) no trauma espinhal agudo (TEA). Sessenta ratos Wistar foram divididos nos grupos CTM, DAN + CTM, DAN, trauma e placebo (TP) e sem trauma e placebo (STP). Realizou-se laminectomia de T12 em todos os grupos, seguida de TEA contusivo ∕ compressivo, com exceção do grupo STP. Uma hora depois, os grupos DAN + CTM e DAN receberam 10mg/kg de DAN. Após sete dias os grupos CTM e DAN + CTM receberam 1x106 células, por via intravenosa. Testes comportamentais foram realizados para avaliar a recuperação funcional durante 28 dias. Os animais traumatizados apresentaram paraplegia. Houve melhora funcional significativa nos grupos tratados com CTM, DAN ou associação DAN + CTM em comparação ao grupo TP. Conclui-se que o DAN e as CTM para tratamento de TEA em ratos apresentam efeitos neuroprotetores e promovem melhora neurológica funcional.

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dantrolene (DAN) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Sixty Wistar rats were divided into groups MSCs, MSCs + DAN, DAN, trauma and placebo (TP) and no trauma and placebo (STP). Laminectomy was performed at T12 level in all animals, followed by a weight-drop model of SCI, except for the STP group. An hour later, the MSCs + DAN and DAN groups received 10mg/kg of DAN. After seven days, the MSCs and MSCs + DAN groups received 1x106 cells intravenously. Behavioral tests were performed to assess functional recovery for 28 days. Traumatized animals showed paraplegia. There was a significant improvement in groups MSCs, DAN and MSCs + DAN compared to TP. It was concluded that DAN and MSCs for the treatment of SCI in rats have neuroprotection effect and promote functional neurological improvement.

23 de jul de 2018

Graduação histológica e aspectos clínico-patológicos relacionados em 22 meningiomas de cães

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 38(4):751-761, abril 2018


Histological grading and related clinical and pathological aspects of 22 canine meningioma

Walter V. Cardozo Areco , Taiara M. Silva , Stella M.P. Melo , Marcia C. Silva , Luiz Francisco Irigoyen , Rafael A. Fighera , Alexandre Mazzanti e Glaucia D. Kommers

ABSTRACT: Twenty two cases of meningiomas in dogs, diagnosed in about 18 years, were analyzed. The neoplasms were histologicaly classified and graded according to the World and Health Organization (WHO of 2007) for human meningiomas, adapted for dogs, in Grade I (G-I; benign), Grade II (G-II; atypical), and Grade III (G-III; anaplastic or malignant). Additional data about gender, age, breed, skull conformation, clinical course and signs, anatomic localization, gross and histological findings were obtained from the necropsy reports. Intracranial and supratentorial meningiomas were the most frequent in relation to the other intracranial or intraspinal sites. The intracranial ones were characterized mainly by clinical signs of thalamic-cortical alteration. Intraspinal ones were mainly characterized by ataxia. G-I meningiomas were the most frequent (63.6%) in dogs, followed by G-III (22.7%) and G-II (13.6%). GI were characterized by having the psammomatous subtype as the most frequent, more than one morphological pattern in the same tumor, one third presenting areas of invasion of nervous tissue, 71.4% of cases involving females, a mean age of 11 years, pure breed dogs as the most affected ones and for having the longest survival time after the manifestation of clinical signs. G-II meningiomas were characterized by having the chordoid subtype as the most frequent, invasion of nervous tissue in one third of cases, only females affected, a mean age of 12 years, two-thirds of the dogs affected were mongrels and the maximum survival time of 20 days. The G-III meningiomas were characterized by having the papillary subtype as the most frequent, invasion of the nervous tissue in 80% of the cases, 60% of the cases involving females, a mean age of 8 years, 80% of dogs affected were Boxers and the maximum survival time of 90 days. In conclusion, this study allowed to establish a relationship between the three histological grades observed in 22 cases of meningiomas in dogs with various clinical-epidemiological and pathological parameters, providing useful information for a better understanding of the correlation between the histological grading and the clinical evolution of these neoplasms.

RESUMO: Vinte e dois casos de meningiomas em cães, diagnosticados num período de aproximadamente 18 anos, foram revisados. Os neoplasmas foram graduados e classificados histologicamente de acordo com os critérios da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS de 2007) para meningiomas em humanos adaptados para cães, em Grau I (G-I; benignos), Grau II (G-II; atípicos) e Grau III (G-III; anaplásico ou maligno). Dos protocolos de necropsias foram retiradas adicionalmente informações referentes ao sexo, idade, raça, evolução clínica, sinais clínicos, localização anatômica e achados macroscópicos. Os meningiomas intracranianos supratentoriais foram os mais frequentes em relação às demais localizações intracranianas ou intraespinhais. Os intracranianos caracterizaram-se principalmente por sinais clínicos de alteração tálamo-cortical. Os intraespinhais caracterizaram-se principalmente por causarem ataxia. Meningiomas G-I foram os mais frequentes (63,6%) nos 22 cães, seguidos pelos G-III (22,7%) e G-II (13,6%). Os G-I caracterizaram-se por ter o subtipo psammomatoso como o mais frequente, mais de um padrão morfológico em um mesmo tumor, e um terço deles apresentando áreas de invasão do tecido nervoso, 71,4% dos casos acometendo fêmeas, uma média de idade de 11 anos, cães com raça definida como os mais acometidos e por ter o maior tempo de sobrevivência após a manifestação dos sinais clínicos. Os meningiomas G-II caracterizaram-se por ter o subtipo cordoide como o mais frequente, invasão do tecido nervoso em um terço dos casos, somente fêmeas acometidas, uma média de idade de 12 anos, dois terços dos cães acometidos sem raça definida e o tempo máximo de sobrevivência de 20 dias. Os meningiomas G-III caracterizaram-se por ter o subtipo papilar como o mais frequente, invasão do tecido nervoso em 80% dos casos, 60% dos casos acometendo fêmeas, uma média de idade de 8 anos, 80% dos cães acometidos da raça Boxer e o tempo máximo de sobrevivência de 90 dias. Este estudo permitiu estabelecer uma relação entre os três graus histológicos observados em 22 casos de meningiomas em cães com vários parâmetros clínico-epidemiológicos e patológicos, fornecendo informações úteis para um melhor conhecimento da correlação entre a graduação histológica e a evolução clínica desses neoplasmas.

16 de jul de 2018

Neoplasias encefálicas em 40 cães: aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos e patológicos

Rafael O. Chaves, João P.S. Feranti , Bruna Copat , Angel Ripplinger , Raqueli T. França , Glaucia D. Kommers , Rafael A. Fighera e Alexandre Mazzanti

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 38(4):734-740, abril 2018


RESUMO: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo de cães atendidos no Serviço de Neurologia (SN) do Hospital Veterinário Universitário (HVU), de 2006 a 2015, com o objetivo de identificar cães com neoplasias encefálicas e obter informações a respeito da raça, do sexo, da idade, dos sinais neurológicos, da localização, da evolução clínica, do tipo e origem do tumor e dos achados de exames complementares e de necropsia. Dos 40 cães com neoplasias encefálicas incluídos neste estudo, 67,5% foram classificadas como de origem primária. Cães sem raça definida e Boxers foram os mais acometidos. Os principais sinais clínicos observados incluíram crise epiléptica, alteração de comportamento e andar em círculo. A região tálamo-cortical foi a mais afetada. Quanto ao tipo do tumor, o meningioma (32,5%) e o oligodendroglioma (12,5%) foram os mais encontrados. A evolução dos sinais clínicos variou entre quatro e 210 dias (média de 44 dias).

ABSTRACT: A retrospective study including dogs with brain neoplasms was conducted at the Service of Neurology (SN) of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, from 2006 to 2015, with the objective to identify and characterize breed, sex, age, neurological signs, the location, the clinical evolution, the type and origin of the tumor and the findings of complementary examinations and necropsy. Of the 40 dogs with brain tumors included in this study 67.5% were classified as primary origin. Mixed breed dogs and Boxers were the most affected. The main clinical signs observed included seizures, behavioral changes and walk in circle. The thalamus-cortex region was the most affected. Regarding the type of the tumor, the meningioma (32.5%) and oligodendroglioma (12.5%) were the most common. The evolution of the clinical signs varied from four to 210 days (mean 44 days).

18 de jun de 2018

Sciatic Nerve Injection Palsy in a Dog: Electrodiagnostic Testing and Microsurgical Treatment

Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2018. 46(Suppl 1): 284.


Ana Carolina Mortari , Juliany Gomes Quitzan , Claudia Valéria Seullner Brandão & Sheila Canevese Rahal


Background: Iatrogenic damage to the ischiatic nerve is considered uncommon and may cause dysfunction with variable clinical signs dependent on type and severity of injury. Due to important role of this nerve in locomotion and weightbearing limb, a poor prognosis for recovery may be observed in many cases. Electromyography analysis may suggest the neuroanatomic localization, diagnosis information, and severity of lesion to determine better therapeutic intervention. Therefore, the aim of this report is to describe the possible cause, diagnosis and treatment of a postinjection ischiatic nerve injury in a dog with complete recovery. Case: A 3-year-old neutered male dachshund dog was referred to the Veterinary Hospital due to inability to weight support in the right hind limb after diminazene diaceturate intramuscular injection. The gait evaluation showed dropped-hock and knuckling into the digits of the right hind limb and neurologic examination revealed moderate muscle atrophy below to femorotibial joint of the right hind limb with sensory analgesia (superficial and deep) on the lateral, dorsal, and plantar surfaces, absent patellar reflex, and proprioceptive deficit. Electrophysiologic testing was done under general anesthesia in a 2-channel Nicolet Compass Meridian apparatus. Absence of compound muscle action potentials after right fibular and tibial nerve stimulations, and abnormal spontaneous activity in cranial tibial, gastrocnemius and deep digital extensor muscles were observed. A diagnosis of moderate/severe axonotmesis of sciatic nerve was achieved. Under microscope magnification, all adherent adjacent tissue and epineural sheat were removed. Due this, a small epineural window was created. On neurological examination performed 30 days after surgery, complete recovery of sensitivity of the right hind limb, and normal proprioception were observed. The muscle atrophy was also noted to have improved. Discussion: The ischiatic nerve mechanisms of injury include direct needle trauma, the drug or vehicle used for injection, or secondary constriction by scar, factors that may be associated to damage nerve observed in the present case. During a sciatic nerve injection, the combination of intrafascicular placement of a needle and high-pressure injection may cause severe fascicular damage and persistent neurologic deficits. In the present case, damage to the nerve probably was not caused by the injection needle, but due to injection agent. Chemical irritation or toxic reaction to the agent may cause different degrees of nerve injury. The electrophysiologic testing is an important tool for determining alteration of function and integrity of the axonal motor unit. In the present report, the electrophysiologic testing showed denervation potentials in the muscles innervated by the sciatic nerve (positive waves and fibrillation potentials), and the absence of compound muscle action potentials was indicative of severe axonal damage of the right ischiatic nerve. In human patients with postinjection ischiatic nerve injury, early surgical treatment with neurolysis or resection and anastomosis are the procedures recommended. In the present report, external neurolysis and epineural window were used showing excellent functional results. The epineural window was performed due to adherence of tissue and scar surrounding the nerve, permitting neural decompression.

14 de jun de 2018

Corpectomia lateral parcial para o tratamento de compressão ventral extradural crônica entre T9-T10 em um cão

Arq. Bras Med. Vet. Zootec., v.70, n.2, p.443-449, 2018


P.V.T. Marinho , C.R.A. Ferrigno , T. Bregadioli , F. Paes2 , J.F. Santos , A.S. Macedo , Í.S. Dal-Bó, V.S. Galeazzi

 RESUMO Objetivou-se relatar um caso de protrusão do disco intervertebral com localização atípica e descrever a técnica cirúrgica de corpectomia lateral parcial no tratamento da afecção em um cão. Um cão de sete anos de idade, macho, raça Pug, foi atendido com ataxia proprioceptiva dos membros pélvicos havia três meses, associada à doença do disco intervertebral entre a nona e 10ª vértebras torácicas. Após um mês de tratamento conservativo sem melhora, o paciente foi encaminhado para o tratamento cirúrgico, quando foi realizada corpectomia lateral parcial esquerda para descompressão da medula espinhal. Após a cirurgia, o paciente apresentou melhora considerável do quadro, sendo a técnica eficaz na remoção da compressão extradural, sem manipulação da medula espinhal ou outras complicações.

Partial lateral corpectomy for treatment of chronic ventral extradural compression between T9-T10 in a dog

ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to report a case of intervertebral disc protrusion with atypical location and describe the surgical technique of partial lateral corpectomy in the treatment of this disease in a dog. A dog, seven -years-old, male, Pug breed was attended with proprioceptive ataxia of the hind limbs for three months correlated with intervertebral disc disease between the 9th and 10th thoracic vertebrae. After a month of conservative treatment without improvements, the patient was referred for surgical treatment, which was performed as a partial left lateral corpectomy for decompression of the spinal cord. After surgery, the patient showed considerable improvement, this technique being shown to be effective in the removal of extradural compression, without manipulation of the spinal cord or other complications. 

11 de jun de 2018

Índice de normalidade da distância atlantoaxial dorsal em cães

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.70, n.2, p.429-436, 2018

E.A. Tudury, A.C. Silva, M.A.S. Lacerda, B.M. Araújo, M.M.A. Amorim, J.E.B. Leite

RESUMO Foram utilizados 30 cães neurologicamente saudáveis e realizadas radiografias da coluna cervical, sendo mensurada a menor distância atlantoaxial dorsal e outros parâmetros anatômicos vertebrais. Esses dados foram avaliados por meio do coeficiente de correlação de Pearson. Após detecção do melhor parâmetro de correlação, utilizou-se a fórmula de coeficiente de correlação dimensional (CCD). Na segunda etapa desta pesquisa, foram utilizadas imagens radiográficas de 33 cães com subluxação atlantoaxial (SAA) e aplicou-se a fórmula CCD. Todas as imagens atlantoaxiais normais e subluxadas foram distribuídas aleatoriamente e submetidas à análise subjetiva. Observou-se que o parâmetro anatômico de maior correlação foi o comprimento do processo espinhoso do áxis, obtendo-se valor de índice médio de 0,056 e desvio-padrão de 0,019. O valor de índice médio obtido em cães com SAA foi de 0,287, e o desviopadrão de 0,123. A análise subjetiva revelou acerto de 88,89% a 95,24%, enquanto a avaliação por meio da fórmula CCD demonstrou ser 100% eficiente no diagnóstico da SAA. Sugeriu-se a utilização da fórmula CCD para obtenção do índice de normalidade da distância atlantoaxial com valor de normalidade médio de 0,056 e limite máximo de 0,098, sendo esse índice eficaz no diagnóstico da subluxação entre o atlas e o áxis.

Normal index of dorsal atlantoaxial distance in dogs

ABSTRACT Thirty healthy dogs had their cervical spines radiographed, and the dorsal atlantoaxial distance and others vertebral anatomical parameters were measured. These data were assessed using the Pearson correlation coefficient. After detection of the best correlation parameter, we used the dimensional correlation coefficient of formula (CCD). In the second stage of the study, radiographs of the 33 dogs with atlantoaxial subluxation (SAA) were used. In each radiographic image, the CCD formula was applied. All normal and subluxation radiographic images were randomized, and submitted to subjective analysis. It was observed that the anatomical parameter with the highest correlation is the length of the spinous process of the axis, obtaining a mean value of 0.056 index and 0.019 standard deviation. Index mean value obtained in dogs with the disease of 0.287 and standard deviation of 0.123. The subjective analysis revealed 88.89% to 95.24% agreement, while the result obtained by the CCD formula was shown to be 100% effective in the diagnosis of SAA. We suggest the use of the CCD formula to obtain the index of normality of the atlantoaxial distance with a mean value of 0.056 and maximum of 0.098, and it is concluded that the index is highly effective in the diagnosis of subluxation between the atlas and the axis. 

7 de mai de 2018

A retrospective study of quadrigeminal arachnoid cysts diagnosed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography in 26 dogs

Pesq. Vet. Bras. vol.38 no.2 Rio de Janeiro Feb. 2018

Lidiane S. Alves; Diego RodriguezVânia M.V. Machado; Maria J. Mamprim; Luiz C. VulcanoRogério M. Amorim

ABSTRACT: Arachnoid cysts are accumulations of cerebrospinal fluid that occur within the arachnoid membrane due to the splitting or duplication of this structure. The aim of this retrospective study is to report the occurrence of this condition in 26 dogs, as well as to describe the findings of computed tomography imaging and magnetic resonance image scans and to correlate these with the clinical signs. A prevalence of the condition was observed in males, predominantly in the small breeds Miniature Pinscher and Shih Tzu, with age raging from 2 months to 9 years. The mainly clinical signs observed in these dogs were seizures and cerebellar ataxia. The study concluded that in 17 dogs the quadrigeminal arachnoid cyst was regarded as an incidental finding, in 6 dogs this condition was regarded as the determinant cause of the clinical signs, and in 3 dogs some clinical signs were associated with arachnoid cyst, but they also presented clinical signs involving others sites of intracranial lesion.

RESUMO: Cistos aracnoide são acúmulos de líquido cefalorraquidiano que ocorre dentro da membrana aracnoide devido à divisão ou duplicação desta estrutura. O objetivo desse estudo retrospectivo é relatar a ocorrência dessa condição em 26 cães, assim como descrever os aspectos de imagem pela tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética e correlacionar com os sinais clínicos. No estudo observamos a prevalência em machos, em raças de pequeno porte, com predomínio de Pinscher miniatura e Shih Tzu, com idade variando de dois meses a nove anos. Os principais sinais neurológicos observados nestes animais foram crises epiléticas e ataxia cerebelar. Foi possível concluir que em 17 cães o cisto aracnoide quadrigeminal foi considerado um achado incidental, em seis cães essa condição foi considerada a causa determinante dos sinais clínicos, e em três cães alguns sinais estavam associados com o cisto aracnoide, porém esses animais apresentaram sinais clínicos relacionados a outros sítios de lesão intracraniana.

16 de abr de 2018

Doenças neurológicas em gatos: 155 casos

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 38(1):107-112, janeiro 2018


Rafael O. Chaves, Monique Togni , Bruna Copat , João P.S. Feranti , Ana P. da Silva , Raqueli T. França , Rafael A. Fighera e Alexandre Mazzanti

 Foi realizado um estudo epidemiológico retrospectivo de gatos com doenças neurológicas atendidos em um Hospital Veterinário Universitário entre 2001 e 2014. O objetivo foi identificar e caracterizar a idade, o sexo, a raça, as doenças neurológicas e classificá-las de acordo com a região anatômica e o acrônimo DINAMIT-V. Foram observados 155 gatos com doenças neurológicas em 13 anos, sendo o diagnóstico confirmado em 112 gatos (72,2%) e presuntivo em 43 (27,8%). Gatos sem raça definida (77,9%) foram os mais comuns, seguido de gatos da raça persa e siamesa. Os locais mais afetados foram medula espinhal entre T3-L3 (28,4%) e tálamo-córtex (24,5%). A maioria dos gatos (43,9%) foi diagnosticada com doença traumática, principalmente trauma de medula espinhal, seguida de doença inflamatória/infecciosa (33,5%). Pode se concluir que a maior prevalência das doenças neurológicas de gatos envolve a medula espinhal e o tálamo-córtex, sendo as traumáticas as mais frequentes. Os dados obtidos podem auxiliar em futuros estudos sobre a frequência e a distribuição das principais doenças neurológicas em gatos.

Neurological diseases in cats: 155 cases.

A retrospective epidemiological study on neurological disease of cats was performed using data from cats admitted to a Veterinary Teaching Hospital from 2001 to 2014. The aim the study was to determine the age, sex race, and type of neurological disease affecting cats and identify these diseases according to the anatomical region and disease classes, specified under the acronym DINAMIT-V. One hundred and fifty five cats with neurological disease were observed during 13 years; the diagnosis was confirmed in 112 (72.2%) and was presumptive in 43 (27.8%). Mixed breed cats (77.9%) were the most commonly affected, followed by Persian and Siamese cats. The most affected anatomic sites were segments T3-L3 of the spinal cord (28.4%) and thalamic-cortical area (24.5%). Most cats (43.9%), were diagnosed with trauma, mainly spinal cord trauma, followed by inflammatory/infectious disease (33.5%). It is concluded that the neurological disorders in cats have higher prevalence in the spinal cord and thalamic-cortical areas and that the most frequent class of disease is trauma. Data obtained may assist future studies regarding neurological diseases in cats.

28 de fev de 2018

Metastatic osteosarcoma as a cause of hemorrhagic stroke in a dog

Thierry G. Cristo, Cristiane B. Vargas , Giovana Biezus , Leonardo S. Costa , Tainah P. Dal Pont , Cristina T. Kanamura , Fabiano. Z. Salbego , Sandra D. Traverso , Renata A. Casagrande

Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Pathology  2017, 10(3), 105 – 110


The aim of this case report is to describe an uncommon hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident (CVA) associated with an osteosarcoma (OSA) metastasis. Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is the acute onset of a neurological deficit from any change in blood supply resulting from a pathological process, characterizing a stroke and among all the causes, the neoplastic thrombus of osteosarcoma, specifically, is the most infrequent in clinical practice. A seven-year-old female midsize mixed-breed dog was submitted to a forelimb amputation for showing an osteoblastic OSA in proximal humerus. Three weeks later, the patient presented uninterruptible seizure and coma, resulting in death. At necropsy, it was observed a friable and reddish mass in the left frontal cortex which, microscopically was constituted by OSA metastasis in association with multiple ruptures of blood vessels and focally extensive severe bleeding, which caused a CVA. At immunohistochemistry, neoplastic cells of the humerus and the brain metastasis were positive for vimentin and osteonectin, confirming the diagnosis of osteoblastic OSA. The reports about OSA metastasis on the brain are rare in animals and humans, what could be related to the low frequency and few diagnosis ante and post-mortem. As uncommon as the description of OSA metastasis to the brain, is the CVA associated to them, demonstrating that reporting cases related to these clinical and anatomopathological lesions are important for the scientific community.

22 de jan de 2018

Extrusão de disco intervertebral caudal (coccígea) em um Basset Hound: primeiro relato de caso

D. Polidoro , L.F.D. Corrêa , R.P. Santos , G. Aiello , R.O. Chaves , R. Baumhardt , A. Ripplinger , A. Mazzanti

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.69, n.6, p.1485-1490, 2017


RESUMO Relata-se o primeiro caso no Brasil de doença do disco intervertebral (Hansen tipo I) entre as vértebras caudais (coccígeas) em uma cadela Basset Hound com seis anos de idade, castrada, pesando 16kg e com histórico de dor durante defecação e manipulação da região pélvica associada à inabilidade de mover, elevar ou abanar a cauda. Na radiografia simples, observou-se opacidade do forame intervertebral entre a quarta e a quinta vértebra caudal. O animal foi submetido à laminectomia dorsal modificada, seguida de fenestração do disco intervertebral afetado. Decorridos 15 dias da cirurgia, a paciente não demonstrava sinais de dor ao defecar e realizava movimentos de abano de cauda, mas ainda com desconforto na palpação e sem elevação da cauda acima da coluna vertebral, o que foi resolvido após 30 dias do procedimento cirúrgico. A relevância do caso está na inclusão, mesmo que rara, da doença do disco intervertebral caudal no diagnóstico diferencial em cães com dor durante a defecação e manipulação da cauda, sendo o exame radiográfico uma ferramenta auxiliar importante para o diagnóstico definitivo e o plano terapêutico. 

ABSTRACT We report here the first case in Brazil of an intervertebral disc disease (Hansen type I) between the caudal vertebrae (coccygeal) in a six-year-old Basset Hound dog, castrated, weighing 16 kg and history of pain during defecation and manipulation of the pelvic region, associated with the inability to move, raise and shake its tail. In the radiography survey, an opacity of the intervertebral foramen between the fourth and fifth caudal vertebra was observed. The animal underwent a modified dorsal laminectomy followed by fenestration of the affected intervertebral disc. After 15 days following surgery, the patient showed no signs of pain when defecating and was able to perform the tail wag movements, but with discomfort on palpation and could not rise the tail high up the spine, which was resolved after 30 days of surgery. The relevance of this report is the inclusion, even if rare, of the caudal intervertebral disc disease in the differential diagnosis in dogs with pain during defecation and handling of the tail, and the radiographic survey is an important auxiliary tool for definitive diagnosis and treatment plan for this disease. 

19 de jan de 2018

Sonda uretral flexível como método alternativo para aferição invasiva da pressão intracraniana em trauma cranioencefálico induzido em coelhos

G. Aiello , A.O. Andrades , A. Ripplinger , A.V. Soares , D. Polidoro , M.A.B. Vaz  , A.C.Colvero , R.P. Santos, R. Conceição , R.O. Chaves , A. Mazzanti

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.69, n.6, p.1551-1559, 2017


RESUMO : O objetivo deste estudo foi utilizar a sonda uretral flexível como método alternativo para aferição da pressão intracraniana em coelhos com trauma cranioencefálico induzido pelo cateter de Fogarty 4 Fr (balão epidural) e comparar os dados obtidos com o método convencional de cateter de ventriculostomia. Foram utilizados 12 coelhos, machos, adultos, distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos, denominados de G1: mensuração da PIC com cateter de ventriculostomia (n=6) e G2: mensuração com sonda uretral (n=6). Foram realizadas duas craniotomias na região parietal direita e esquerda para a implantação do cateter de ventriculostomia ou sonda uretral flexível e o balão epidural, respectivamente. A PAM, a PPC, a FC, a FR e a TR foram mensurados antes e após a craniotomia. A PIC foi avaliada após a craniotomia e a cada 10 minutos depois do preenchimento do balonete com 0,3mL de NaCl 0,9%, durante 40 minutos, e com 0,6mL, pelo mesmo período de tempo, totalizando 80 minutos. A PIC aumentou em ambos os grupos, sendo menores os valores registrados com a sonda uretral flexível. Foi possível reproduzir o aumento da PIC com o modelo experimental de TCE utilizando o cateter de Fogarty 4 Fr na região epidural e, embora haja a necessidade de outros estudos, a sonda uretral flexível demonstra ser um método alternativo de mensuração da PIC em coelhos com trauma cranioencefálico.

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of flexible urethral catheter as an alternative method for measuring intracranial pressure in rabbits with head trauma induced by 4 F Fogarty catheter (epidural balloon) and compare the data obtained with the conventional method of ventriculostomy catheter. In this study, New Zealand rabbits were randomly distributed into two groups, G1: measuring the ICP with ventriculostomy catheter (n=6) and G2: measuring the ICP with urethral catheter (n=6). Two craniotomies were performed in the right and left parietal region for the implantation of a ventriculostomy catheter and/or flexible urethral catheter and epidural 4 Fr Fogarty arterial embolectomy catheter, respectively. MAP, CPP, HR, RF and RT values were measured before and after of the craniotomy. The ICP value was measured after craniotomy, every five minutes during 40 minutes after the balloon was inflated with 0.3 ml with NaCl and further 40 minutes after the balloon was inflated with 0.6 ml. The ICP value increased in both groups; however, the ICP values were lower in the flexible urethral catheter. The flexible urethral catheter can be used as an alternative method to measure ICP values in rabbits with head injury. 

17 de jan de 2018

Consequences of intraoperative spinal cord manipulation in dogs with thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion

C.C. Diogo , E.A. Tudury , M.A. Bonelli , B.M. Araújo , M.L. de Figueiredo , T.H.T. Fernandes , A.C. Silva , D. Baraúna Júnior , C.R.O. Santos , M.M.A. Amorim , M.V. Bahr Arias

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.69, n.6, p.1473-1479, 2017


ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to evaluate if extradural contact during hemilaminectomy would cause neurological deterioration in the early and/or late postoperative period in dogs with intervertebral disc extrusion. Nineteen dogs with thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion underwent hemilaminectomy for spinal cord decompression and removal of extruded disc material. Meningeal contacts during surgery were quantified. Paraplegia (with nociception) and paraparesis were observed in 11/19 and 8/19 of dogs, respectively, before surgery. At the end of our study, only two (2/19) had paraplegia and one (1/19), paraparesis. There were more extradural contacts when extruded intervertebral disc material was at a ventrolateral position. Extradural contacts during surgery had no influence on neurological progression nor on time to recovery of motor function. Immediately (24 and 48 hours) after surgery, 13/19 dogs had the same neurological stage before surgery. At 7 and 90 days, 13/19 and 17/19 dogs, respectively, showed neurological improvement, compared with their preoperative stage. There was no influence of the number of extradural contacts on neurological recovery. These findings indicate that a careful inspection of the vertebral canal for removal of as much extruded disc material as possible does not cause neurologic deterioration.

RESUMO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar se contatos extradurais durante hemilaminectomia em cães com extrusão de disco intervertebral causariam piora neurológica no pós-operatório imadiato e/ou tardio. Dezenove cães com extrusão toracolombar de disco intervertebral foram submetidos à hemilaminectomia para descompressão medular e remoção do material extruso. Durante o procedimento cirúrgico, os contatos meningomedulares foram quantificados. Antes da cirurgia, 11/19 cães apresentavam paraplegia (com nocicepção) e 8/19 cães, paraparesia. Ao fim do estudo, apenas dois cães (2/19) mostravam paraplegia com dor profunda e um (1/19), paraparesia. Observou-se maior quantidade de contatos extradurais quando o material discal extruso encontrava-se em posição ventrolateral. Os contatos extradurais não mostraram influência estatística na evolução neurológica dos animais, bem como no tempo de recuperação das funções motora. Vinte e quatro e 48 horas após a cirurgia, 13/19 cães apresentavam o mesmo grau neurológico de antes da cirurgia. Após sete e 90 dias de pósoperatório, 13/19 e 17/19 demonstraram melhora neurológica em comparação com o pré-operatório, respectivamente. A quantidade de contatos extradurais não influenciou na recuperação neurológica dos cães. Esses achados indicam que uma inspeção minuciosa do canal vertebral pode ser recomendada, a fim de remover o máximo de material discal extruso, evitando-se piora neurológica por compressão medular. 

15 de jan de 2018

Neuromiopatia isquêmica em cinco cães (2008-2016)

 Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 37(9):971-976.2017


Angel Ripplinger , Rafael O. Chaves , Glaucia D. Kommers , Flavia S. da Luz , Dakir Polidoro , Rafael A. Fighera e Alexandre Mazzanti


 O objetivo deste estudo foi apresentar dados epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos de cinco cães com neuromiopatia isquêmica secundária a trombose ou tromboembolismo aórtico. Os cães eram fêmeas, com idade ≥11 anos, que apresentavam paraplegia (80%) ou monoplegia (20%) de membro pélvico. Em 40% dos casos (n=2) foi relatada claudicação previamente à disfunção motora. Os principais achados clínicos foram ausência de pulso femoral uni ou bilateral, extremidade de membros pélvicos frias, dor muscular acima da articulação do joelho e ausência de nocicepção (dor profunda) nos dígitos dos membros pélvicos. Quatro cães foram submetidos à eutanásia devido ao prognóstico desfavorável e um veio a óbito em menos de 24 horas de internação. Na necropsia foi encontrada alteração cardíaca em três cães, neoplásica em um e, sem causa determinante em outro caso. Os trombos estavam localizados na aorta abdominal e se estendiam até as artérias ilíacas. Mesmo sendo baixa a incidência, a neuromiopatia isquêmica deve ser incluída no diagnóstico diferencial de cães com claudicação, paraparesia ou paraplegia uni ou bilateral, quando os sinais neurológicos são compatíveis com lesão de neurônio motor inferior (L4-S3) e de evolução aguda ou crônica. A avaliação do pulso femoral digital e/ou por doppler vascular deve ser empregada e pode auxiliar no diagnóstico da doença evitando que os animais iniciem tratamento para outras afecções.

Ischemic neuromyopathy in five dogs (2008-2016)

This study aimed to present epidemiological, clinical and anatomopathological data of five dogs with ischemic neuromyopathy secondary to aortic thrombosis or thromboembolism. The dogs were females, with eleven years of age or more, that had paraplegia (80%) or hind limb monoplegia (20%). Forty percent of the cases (n=2) had lameness previously the motor disfunction. The main clinical findings include absence of unilateral or bilateral femoral pulse, cool hind limbs extremities, muscle pain above the knee joint and absence of nociception (deep pain) on the hind limbs digits. Four dogs were euthanized due to the poor prognosis, and the last one died within 24 hours of hospital admission. The necropsy findings were cardiac lesions in three dogs, neoplastic disease in one, and unknown cause on the other. The thrombi were located on the abdominal aorta, extending to the iliac arteries. Even with low incidence, the ischemic neuromyopathy should be included in the differential diagnosis of dogs with lameness, paraparesis, or unilateral or bilateral paraplegia, when neurological signs are compatible with lower motor neuron lesion (L4-S3) and acute or chronic progression. The digital and/or vascular doppler evaluation of the femoral pulse must be used and can assist on the disease diagnosis, avoiding treatments for other illnesses.

27 de nov de 2017

Abiotrofia cerebelar em um gato: relato de caso

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.69, n.5, p.1181-1185, 2017

Cerebellar abiotrophy in a feline: case report

M.O. Firmino , L.Â. Maia , C.C.F.S. Costa , L.M. Oliveira , A.F.M. Dantas


RESUMO: Um caso de abiotrofia cerebelar em um gato com 45 dias de idade foi diagnosticado no Laboratório de Patologia Animal, Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande. O animal apresentava, havia 15 dias, apatia, anorexia, desidratação, ataxia, hipermetria, espasticidade dos membros torácicos e pélvicos, tremores de intenção, nistagmo, opistótono, déficit proprioceptivo e ausência de resposta de ameaça. Clinicamente, havia a suspeita de hipoplasia cerebelar, e, devido ao prognóstico desfavorável, o animal foi eutanasiado. Na necropsia, não foram observadas alterações macroscópicas. Microscopicamente, as lesões estavam restritas ao cerebelo e caracterizavam-se por alterações neurodegenerativas e necróticas, com desaparecimento segmentar dos neurônios de Purkinje. Nessas áreas, também se verificaram espaços em branco, denominado aspecto de cesto vazio, resultantes da perda dos neurônios de Purkinje, além de raros esferoides axonais e proliferação dos astrócitos de Bergmann. Em algumas áreas, a camada granular estava hipocelular e havia moderada gliose multifocal na camada molecular. O diagnóstico de abiotrofia cerebelar foi realizado com base nos dados epidemiológicos, clínicos e, principalmente, pelas alterações histopatológicas dos neurônios de Purkinje características da doença. 

ABSTRACT: The aim of this report was to describe a case of cerebellar abiotrophy in cat with 45-year-old diagnosed at the Animal Pathology Laboratory, Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Campina Grande. The animal had presented 15-day apathy, anorexia, dehydration and neurological signs, characterized by ataxia, hypermetria, spasticity of fore and hindlimbs, intention tremor, nystagmus, opisthotonos, proprioceptive deficits, and absence of threat response. Clinically, cerebellar hypoplasia was suspected and the animal was euthanized due to poor prognosis. During necropsy, gross lesions were not observed. Microscopically the lesions were restricted to the cerebellum and were characterized by neurodegenerative and necrotic damage with segmental disappearance of the Purkinje cells. In these areas, there were also empty spaces, called the empty basket aspect, resulting from the loss of Purkinje cells, as well as rare axonal spheroids and proliferation of Bergmann's astrocytes. In some areas, the granular layer was hypocellular and there was moderate multifocal gliosis in the molecular layer. The diagnosis of cerebellar abiotrophy was based on epidemiological, clinical and mainly on histopathological changes in neurons of Purkinje disease characteristics. 

23 de nov de 2017

Avaliação clínica de cães com doença do disco intervertebral (Hansen tipo I) submetidos à descompressão cirúrgica: 110 casos

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 37(8):835-839, agosto 2017

Clinical evaluation of dogs with intervertebral disc disease (Hansen type I) submitted to surgical decompression: 110 cases.

Rafael O. Chaves, Dakir N. Polidoro , João P.S. Feranti , Andrei K. Fabretti , Bruna Copat , Lucas A. Gomes e Alexandre Mazzanti

Abstract: The aim of this study was to identify dogs with thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease (Hansen type I) submitted for surgical treatment on a routine service in neurology in a university veterinary hospital in 2006-2014, and to get information about age, sex, breed, site of extrusion, interpretation of myelography, evaluation of the degree of neurological dysfunction, functional recovery of these dogs, and to verify the recurrence of clinical signs of disease. The most common breed was Dachshund (69%), followed by mixed breed (14.5%). The most affected sites were between T12-T13 (31.9%) and L1-L2 (19.1%). Of the 110 dogs, 74 (67.3%) improved clinical signs after surgery, 54 (49.1%) satisfactory and 20 (18.2%), in part satisfactory. From these dogs, six (8.1%) dogs were in grade II, 19 (25.7%) in grade III, 35 (47.3%) in grade IV, and 14 (18.9%) in grade V. It can be concluded that satisfactory surgical treatment promotes functional recovery in most dogs with thoracolumbar disk extrusion. The prognosis for functional recovery after surgical treatment is better the lower the degree of neurological dysfunction and the recurrence percentage is lower in dogs subjected to this type of therapy.

Resumo: O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar cães com doença do disco intervertebral toracolombar (Hansen tipo I) submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico em um serviço de rotina em neurologia de um hospital veterinário universitário no período de 2006 a 2014, e obter informações a respeito da idade, do sexo, da raça, local da extrusão, interpretação da mielografia, avaliação dos graus de disfunção neuroló- gica, recuperação funcional desses cães e observar a ocorrência de recidiva dos sinais clínicos da doença. A raça mais frequente foi Dachshund (69%), seguida dos cães sem raça definida (14,5%). Os locais mais afetados foram entre T12- -T13 (31,9%) e L1-L2 (19,1%). Dos 110 cães, 74 (67,3%) tiveram melhora dos sinais clínicos após o procedimento cirúrgico, sendo 54 (49,1%) considerados satisfatórios e 20 (18,2%), parcialmente satisfatórios. Destes cães, seis (8,1%) cães estavam em grau II, 19 (25,7%) em grau III, 35 (47,3%) em grau IV e 14 (18,9%) em grau V. Pode-se concluir que o tratamento cirúrgico promove recuperação funcional satisfatória na maioria dos cães com extrusão de disco toracolombar. O prognóstico para recuperação funcional após o tratamento cirúrgico é tanto melhor quanto menor for o grau de disfunção neurológica e o percentual de recidiva é baixo em animais submetidos a este tipo de terapia.

20 de nov de 2017

Estudo clínico e epidemiológico em cães com fraturas e luxações vertebrais toracolombares

Clinical and epidemiological study in dogs with thoracolumbar vertebrae fractures and luxations

Bruno M. Araújo, Thaíza H.T. Fernandes , Durval Baraúna Junior , Marília de A. Bonelli , Marcela M. de A. Amorim e Eduardo A. Tudury

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 37(8):866-870, agosto 2017

Abstract: Vertebral fractures and luxations (VFL) are one of the most common and severe neurological issues found in clinical practice, with an elevated risk of permanent damage to the spinal cord. Our objective was to study the characteristics and implications associated with thoracolumbar VFL in 37 dogs, aiming assist a better clinical approach to patients with this disease. The VFL were more common in intact males with access to the street. Regarding etiology, 32 dogs were involved in car accidents. Of the dogs included in this research, 14 had non-neurological issues in other systems. The presence of unstable fractures was the most common radiographic change. In 16.2% of the dogs, vertebral lesions were observed outside the main site. Mean time until initial neurologic exam varied between one and 720 days, and most dogs were referred without external coaptation. There was a significant difference in recovery of the dogs when comparing a degree of dislocation of 0 to 25% and 76 to 100%.

Resumo:  Fraturas e luxações vertebrais (FLV) estão dentre as principais afecções que acometem a coluna vertebral em cães, com elevado risco de danos permanentes às estruturas neurais. Objetivou-se estudar as características e implicações associadas às FLV toracolombares em 37 cães, visando auxiliar uma melhor abordagem clínica em pacientes com esta afecção. As FLV foram mais comuns em machos não castrados com acesso a rua. Dentre a etiologia, 32 cães foram acometidos por acidente automobilístico. 14 cães apresentaram lesões não neurológicas em outros sistemas orgânicos. A presença de fraturas instáveis foi a alteração radiográfica mais comum. Em 16,2% dos animais, observaram-se lesões vertebrais fora do foco principal. O tempo até o atendimento neurológico inicial variou de um a 720 dias, no qual a maioria foi encaminhada sem imobilização externa. Houve diferença estatisticamente significante quanto à recuperação neurológica ao se comparar os graus de deslocamento de 0 a 25% e de 76 a 100%

16 de nov de 2017

Desenvolvimento de caminhar espinal em cães paraplégicos com fraturas e luxações vertebrais toracolombares

Bruno Martins Araújo , Thaíza Helena Tavares Fernandes , Durval Baraúna Junior , Marília de Albuquerque Bonelli , Marcela Maria de Almeida Amorim e Eduardo Alberto Tudury

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 37(8):853-858, agosto 2017

Abstract: Thoracolumbar vertebral fractures and luxations (VFL) are one of the most common neurological disorders in veterinary neurology and one of the most serious and challenging disorders due to the high risk of permanent paralysis, leading many dogs to be euthanized without treatment due to the reports of unfavorable prognosis about ambulation in animals that lost nociception. This study aimed to describe the neurophysiologic bases responsible for the development of the spinal walking and examine in 37 dogs affected with thoracolumbar VFL, data relating to the recovery rate of animals with and without nociceptionIn those without nociception was analyzed the frequency of the spinal walking animals that developed for its appearance, and the average period was established. Regarding the degree of injury to recovery rates, 14/37 dogs (37.8%) had nociception, in which the rate of recovery of voluntary ambulation was 100%. While 23/37 dogs (62.1%) lost the nociception, where no voluntary ambulation was regained ambulation, occurred death from various causes in seven of these. From 16 dogs without nociception and survivors who underwent conservative or surgical treatment, five (31.25%) regained the ability to walk without regaining nociception; this was attributed to spinal walking, where the average time for their development was 115 days. According to the results of this study, the single parameter of loss of the nociception should not discourage the therapy, as paraplegic dogs with thoracolumbar VFL can develop involuntary ambulation.

Resumo: Fraturas e luxações vertebrais (FLV) toracolombares estão dentre as afecções neurológicas mais frequentes na neurologia veterinária. São um dos distúrbios mais graves e desafiadores, devido ao elevado risco de paralisia permanente, levando muitos animais a serem submetidos à eutanásia, devido ao prognóstico desfavorá- vel nos animais que perderam a nocicepção. Objetivou-se descrever as bases neurofisiológicas responsáveis pelo desenvolvimento do caminhar espinal e analisar, em 37 cães acometidos por FLV toracolombares, os dados referentes à taxa de recuperação dos animais com e sem nocicepção. Naqueles sem nocicepção, analisou-se ainda a frequência dos animais que desenvolveram caminhar espinal e o período médio para seu aparecimento. Em relação ao grau da lesão a as taxas de recuperação, 14/37 animais (37,8%) possuíam nocicepção, no qual a taxa de recuperação da deambulação voluntaria e das funções viscerais foi de 100%. Enquanto que 23/37 animais (62,1%) perderam a nocicepção, no qual nenhum recuperou a deambulação voluntária, ocorrendo morte por causas diversas em sete destes. Dos 16 animais sem nocicepção sobreviventes e que foram submetidos ao tratamento conservativo ou cirúrgico, cinco (31,25%) readquiriram a capacidade de caminhar (tempo médio de 115 dias) sem recuperar a nocicepção, sendo esta deambulação involuntária atribuída ao caminhar espinal. De acordo com os resultados desta pesquisa, o parâmetro isolado da perda da nocicep- ção não deve desencorajar a realização da terapia, pois em cães paraplégicos com FLV toracolombares, há possibilidade de ocorrer desenvolvimento de deambulação involuntária

31 de out de 2017

Aspectos terapêuticos de cães com diagnóstico presuntivo de epilepsia idiopática

Graciane Aiello , Amanda Oliveira de Andrades , Angel Ripplinger , Dakir Polidoro , Rafael Oliveira Chaves , Priscila Ferreira & Alexandre Mazzanti


Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2017. 45: 1453

Background: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition characterised by recurrent epileptic seizures. Various antiepileptic drugs are used for the management of canine idiopathic epilepsy. Phenobarbital is the drug of choice for long-term treatment in dogs. Although it is well tolerated, phenobarbital can cause liver injury if administered alone or in combination with other drugs. Therefore, the main of this study was to identify dogs with presumptive diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy and information about the antiepileptic drugs, the dose and frequency of administration, period of treatment, frequency of the seizure before and after start the treatment, complementary exams and adverse effects. Materials, Methods & Results: In this study were included 21 dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. All dogs were examined and having blood taken for blood count, biochemical tests (ALT, AST, AP, total protein, albumin, creatinine, urea, amylase, lipase, cholesterol and triglycerides), measurement of serum phenobarbital and/or potassium bromide and, some dogs, free T4 by dialysis and canine TSH. In this study, it was observed monotherapy (phenobarbital) in 76.19% (16/21), double therapy (phenobarbital and potassium bromide) in 19.05% (4/21) and triple therapy (phenobarbital, potassium bromide and gabapentin) in 4.76% (1/21) of dogs. The phenobarbital was used as monotherapy with dose between 1.4 and 12 mg kg-1 and the median of serum concentration was 26.41 μg kg-1. There was significant reduction in the frequency of the seizure after start the treatment. There was refractory to antiepileptic drugs in two dogs (9.5%). In blood analysis, there was increase serum activities of AP (23.81%) and ALT (14.20%), decrease total protein (42.29%), hypoalbuminemia (9.5%) and it was not increased AST activities. The main adverse effects were nodularliver damage and hypothyroidism. Discussion: In most cases of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy, monotherapy is preferred, because it tends to avoid complications that may arise from drug interactions and may also improve compliance by providing a simple treatment regimen. In this study, the phenobarbital controlled the seizures when used as monotherapy. It is considered success of an antiseizure drug when there is a reduction of seizure frequency by at least 50%, with minimal drug side effects. Approximately 20-30% of dogs with epilepsy do not have satisfactory seizure control or experience intolerable adverse effects with appropriate conventional medical treatment. In this study, there was refractory to antiepileptic drugs in 9.5%, one dog treated with phenobarbital and other with phenobarbital and potassium bromide. The long-term use of phenobarbital causes increase in liver enzymes, ALT and, mainly, ALP, these are attributed to enzymatic induction and to low degree of liver damage. ALT and AP increased the values and this does not necessarily indicate clinically significant liver damage or the need to stop therapy. The risk of liver toxicity appears to be greater with concentrations higher than 35 μg mL-1 or when multiple potentially hepatotoxic drugs are used. Other factors associated to the long-term use of anticonvulsant, such phenobarbital, potassium bromide or both, for the treatment of idiopathic epilepsy in dogs is acute pancreatitis and hypothyroidism. In this study, it was not observed acute pancreatitis, but there were two dogs with hypothyroidism. The long-term use of phenobarbital did not cause significant side effects, even with changes in the biochemical tests.

9 de out de 2017

Aparência tomográfica dos discos intervertebrais mineralizados em cães da raça Dachshund Miniatura

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.69, n.4, p.941-947, 2017


D. Baraúna Júnior , T.H.T. Fernandes , I.C.C. Silva , M.A. Bonelli , C.R.O. Santos , M.M.A. Amorim, F.S. Costa , E.A. Tudury

RESUMO: Objetivou-se com este trabalho descrever os aspectos de tomografia computadorizada de discos intervertebrais de cães da raça Dachshund com um ano de idade, assim como quantificar, qualificar e localizar a mineralização nos componentes do DIV e no espaço intervertebral da coluna vertebral. Dez cães dessa raça, com um ano de idade, foram submetidos à tomografia computadorizada (TC). Nas imagens de reconstrução sagital dos animais, procedeu-se à identificação de sete DIV em cada animal, entre as vértebras T9 e L3, totalizando a análise de 70 DIV. Entre os DIV mineralizados, a presença da alteração foi determinada quanto à localização no núcleo pulposo (NP), no anel fibroso (AF) e em AF/NP. Dos 70 DIV avaliados, 45 foram considerados como mineralizados. Entre os classificados como mineralizados, 20% (9/45), 17,8% (8/45) e 62,2% (28/45) estavam localizados nas regiões do NP, AF e AF/NP, respectivamente. A mineralização encontrada neste estudo esteve caracterizada por aumento de atenuação radiográfica com densidade mineral na topografia do DIV, havendo variações da localização e da radiodensidade de área calcificada entre animais e DIV no mesmo indivíduo. As alterações relativas à mineralização dos DIV podem ser classificadas tomograficamente quanto à localização da alteração no disco em AF, NP e AF/NP. 

5 de out de 2017

Prevalência de alterações comportamentais em cães idosos

Ciência Rural, Santa Maria, v.47: 02, e20151645, 2017

Denis Jeronimo Svicero Marta Cristina Thomas Heckler, Rogério Martins Amorim

RESUMO: Devido à melhora na nutrição e na medicina veterinária, há mais cães idosos do que antes. Infelizmente, acompanhando este crescimento na população geriátrica, houve um aumento no número de cães demonstrando distúrbios de comportamento e senilidade aparente. Entretanto, muitos dos proprietários têm considerado todos esses sinais decorrentes de uma inevitável velhice. O objetivo deste estudo foi obter a prevalência de sinais clínicos relacionados com alterações comportamentais na população canina idosa, atendida no Hospital Veterinário da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da UNESP. Proprietários de 800 cães idosos responderam um questionário sobre desorientação, alterações na interação social, perda de treinamento (urina e/ou defeca em locais não habituais), alterações no ciclo sono-vigília, atividade física, memória, aprendizagem, consciência e percepção. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo apresentaram uma prevalência de alterações comportamentais na população canina idosa significativa, variando de 22,3% dos cães, com pelo menos seis alterações comportamentais e, chegando a 90,7% com pelo menos uma alteração de comportamento, sendo alterações na atividade física (58,5%) e perda de treinamentos adquiridos (30,2%) os grupos de maior percentual relatado pelos proprietários. Conclui-se que a prevalência de alterações comportamentais relacionadas com o envelhecimento da população canina é alta, sendo importante incluir questões sobre as alterações comportamentais durante as consultas clínicas veterinárias regulares para identificar, o mais precocemente possível, estes sinais clínicos e realizar ações para investigar as possíveis causas de déficit cognitivo, incluindo doenças neurológicas, como a Síndrome de Disfunção Cognitiva canina. 

ABSTRACT: Owing to improvements in animal welfare, such as in nutrition, preventive medicine, and diagnostic tools, older dogs have become increasingly more prevalent than before. Unfortunately, there is an increasing number of dogs presenting behavioral changes correlated with this growth in the geriatric population. However, many of these owners consider these signs as normal for old age. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of clinical signs related with behavioral changes in the canine geriatric population admitted to the Veterinary Hospital of the Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science College of Universidade Estadual Paulista. The owners of 800 old dogs completed a questionnaire about disorientation, changes in social interaction, loss of training (house soiling), changes in the wake-sleep cycle, physical activity, memory, learning, consciousness, and perception. The results showed that the prevalence of behavioral changes in the canine geriatric population was 90.7% of dogs that presented at least one of these behavioral changes, and 22.3% with at least six changes, and with changes in physical activity (58.5%) and loss of acquired training (30.2%) being the highest percentage groups that were reported by the owners. We concluded that the prevalence of behavioral changes related with aging in the canine geriatric population was high, and that it was important to include questions about behavioral changes during regular veterinary clinical appointments to identify these clinical signs earlier and investigate the possible causes of the cognitive impairment, including neurological diseases, such as Canine Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome.

22 de mai de 2017


Acta Veterinaria Brasilica, v.10, n.2, p.177-181, 2016

Vinicius Gonzalez Peres Albernaz1 , Isabella de Almeida Fabris , Bruna Ribeiro Paiva , Jeniffer Gabriela Figueroa Coris , Juliany Gomes Quitzan

The Schiff-Sherrington phenomenon is an extensor hypertonicity of the forelimbs that occurs when there is a severe injury in the thoracolumbar segment. A 4-years-old, intact female, mixed breed dog, presented with vehicle trauma history followed by non-ambulatory paraparesis, extensor rigidity of forelimb and allodynia pain sensation. Superficial pain sensation was decreased. The treatment was based on unique dose of dexamethasone followed by oral administration of meloxicam, tramadol hydrochloride, dypirone, omeprazole and, poly vitamin complex. Low field magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed hyperintensity signal between T12 and T13 on T2-wheighting image compatible with neuronal edema. In the day after, allodynia and extensor rigidity presented spontaneously resolution. At 10th day, return to voluntary ambulation without assistance. Schiff-Sherrington posture is usually associated with poor prognosis and grade V traumatic injury of the thoracolumbar spinal cord. We report a grade III traumatic spinal cord injury confirmed with MRI as only neuronal edema causing the posture. The Schiff-Sherrington posture often resolves spontaneously in 10-14 days, but neurological signs of trauma can persist. The conservative treatment proposed was efficient, promoting forelimb recovery on the day after and total recovery of motor function in 10 days

5 de jan de 2017

Spinal Neoplasm in Dogs

Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2016. 44: 1425


Larissa Garbelini Valentim , Rogério Anderson Marcasso , Ana Paula Frederico Loureiro Bracarense & Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias


 Background: Various diseases can cause spinal cord disorders in dogs including neoplasia of the nervous system, which are more common in mature and older animals. Some breeds, as brachycephalics, are more predisposed for certain types of tumors. Spinal neoplasia can be categorized as primary or secondary tumors, and still can be grouped in extradural, intradural/extramedullary or intramedullary. The aim of this study was to investigate the signalment, neurological syndrome, type and source of the mass, presence of metastases, and clinical outcomes in 28 dogs diagnosed with spinal tumors. 
Materials, Methods & Results: This study included 28 dogs, and in 20 cases, spinal neoplasia was confirmed by necropsy, biopsy, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. In the other eight animals, the presumptive diagnosis was based on clinical and neurological signs and by observing changes in plain radiographs of the spine, chest radiographs, and myelography. The location of the lesion was established as cervical, cervicothoracic, thoracolumbar, or lumbosacral, and the lesion was determined to be multifocal when clinical signs appeared in more than one location. Spinal cord injury was additionally classified as unilateral, bilateral, symmetrical, or asymmetrical. The following complementary examinations were performed based on the clinical suspicion, indications, and availability of the owner: complete blood count, serum biochemical profile, urinalysis, spinal radiography, cerebrospinal fluid analysis (CSF), myelography, abdominal ultrasound, thoracic X-ray to determine metastases, and Computed Tomography. CSF was collected and analyzed in seven animals, and pleocytosis with a predominance of lymphocytes was found in two cases. Decompression and exploratory surgeries were performed in six dogs to confirm the suspected diagnosis and collect tissues for histopathology. The final diagnosis was made by histopathological examination of the tissue obtained by excisional biopsy or necropsy after the death of the animal or euthanasia. In eight cases, the neoplasia type could not be confirmed as the owner did not provide consent to perform exploratory surgery or necropsy. The dogs most affected were poodles (17.85%) and boxers (17.85%), between the ages of 5 and 10 years, and 67.85% of the cases were female dogs. The thoracolumbar region was the most affected (50%). Metastatic spinal tumors predominated; especially those originating in the mammary gland (38.46%) and on the skin (34.61%), and among the primary neoplasms, meningiomas predominated. The clinical course in relation to the onset of symptoms of neurological dysfunction, until death or euthanasia, ranged from 1-170 days, with an average 42 days of survival. 
Discussion: The results differ from previous studies, in which the number of male and female dogs with neoplasms in the CNS was the same, as in the present study female dogs were more affected. Unlike other studies, metastatic spinal tumors predominated. After the diagnosis, the survival was short and this may be due to the fact that most dogs in this study already had more than one system affected, and consequently showed significant changes related to systemic metastases during the onset of the neurological symptoms. The surgical treatment presented variable results, and the results observed after surgical resection of neoplasms vary due to the location in relation to the spinal cord, neoplasm type, severity of the clinical signs, and possibility of removal along with margin without causing spinal instability. In dogs with spinal disorders, the veterinary practitioner should suspect cancer, especially if there is a history of excision of neoplasms in other systems.

16 de set de 2016

Intervertebral Disc Extrusion between T8 and T9 in a Dachshund

Gabriel Antonio Covino Diamante, Paulo Vinicius Tertuliano Marinho, Carolina Camargo Zani, Bruno Cesar Elias & Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias

Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2016. 44(Suppl 1): 161.


Background: Intervertebral disc extrusion with consequent spinal compression or intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) is one of the most common causes of compressive myelopathy in dogs, and the thoracolumbar spine discs between T12 and L2 are most affected. Extrusions in cranial thoracic region are rare, and there is few cases in literature reporting this situations, this rarity is attributed to the presence of the intercapital ligament connecting the rib heads between T2 and T10, which strengthens this region both mechanically and anatomically. The aim of this article is report the clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of a case of Type I Hansen IVDD between T8 and T9 in a Dachshund breed dog. 
Case: An 8-year-old Dachshund male dog was presented for investigation of pelvic limb incoordination and back pain, which started 10 days prior to the consultation. It had a history of a similar condition 3 months earlier that showed improvement after clinical treatment. On neurological examination was identified in both pelvic limbs proprioceptive ataxia, absence of proprioception, increased muscle tone, presence of interdigital reflex and increased patellar reflex. Cutaneous trunci reflex was absent below T11 on the left side, and pain was noted upon palpation of T7 through the T12 vertebrae. A grade II asymmetric thoracolumbar lesion with hyperesthesia was diagnosed. On suspicion of IVDD, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection and CT scan analysis of the thoracolumbar region were performed. CT scan showed the presence of hyperattenuating and mineralized material, 1 cm long, on the floor of the spinal canal, mainly on the left side, occupying 80% of the diameter of the spinal canal between T8 and T9. The patient was then submitted to decompression surgery through hemilaminectomy and showed a good recovery. As the occurrence of disc extrusion in cranial thoracic region of chondrodystrophic breeds is rare, we report the clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of a case of Type I Hansen intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) between T8 and T9 in a Dachshund breed dog. 
Discussion: All spinal discs can undergo a process of degeneration causing IVDD, in which the cervical and thoracolumbar regions are the most affected due to reasons not yet fully understood, however spinal cord compression between the T1 and T9 vertebrae is very rare, probably due to the strengthening provided by the intercapital ligament to the posterior annulus fibrosus. Disc extrusion in unusual locations in chondrodystrophic breeds is mainly reported as extrusion between vertebrae T1 and T2, and T9 and T10, with some cases was attributed to an anatomical abnormality of the intercapital ligament. The evaluation of intervertebral discs of the German shepherd breed dogs using MRI showed disc degeneration processes in thoracic vertebras. Disc extrusions often result in more severe clinical signs than protrusions, and occur acutely or subacutely, which was different from the case described here, maybe because the presence of the intercapital ligament permitted gradual extrusion allowing the spinal cord to adapt to the compression. Despite surgical access to this region being described as more complex due to the presence and proximity of the rib head to the vertebral body and the possibility of injuring the intercostal muscles causing pneumothorax, the hemilaminectomy and rib head excision at T9 could be performed without any complications. Thus, although unusual, the cranial thoracic region should not be overlooked as a possible site of occurrence of IVDD, since the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are similar to those in patients with extrusions in the most common sites.

23 de ago de 2016

Paralisia facial secundária a hipotireoidismo em cão


Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2016. 44(Suppl 1): 150

Rafael Oliveira Chaves , Bruna Copat , João Pedro Scussel Feranti , Dênis Antonio Ferrarin, Marcelo Luis Schwab , Luciana Schneider , Raqueli Teresinha França & Alexandre Mazzanti

 Secondary neurological disorders to hypothyroidism are unusual in dogs, especially when compared with other clinical signs, such as lethargy, weight gain and dermatological alterations. When manifested, these signals refer to the peripheral or central nervous system and the most common include: vestibular disease, seizures, laryngeal paralysis, polyneuropathy and paralysis of the facial nerve. Several reports of neurological disorders associated with hypothyroidism are found in literature. In the national literature, however, there are few reports on the subject. Thus, the aim of this study was to report a case of facial paralysis associated with hypothyroidism in a dog. 
 A  7-year-old canine,  male  boxer,  was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of the UFSM with a history of difficult water and food intake and asymmetry of the face for seven days. On neurological examination, the animal was  alert and with normal locomotion, postural reactions and segmental reflexes. In the evaluation of the cranial nerves, there was a menace response absent the right side, however with preserved vision. There was palpebral and lip ptosis of the right side and absence of  palpebral reflex on the same side. The diagnosis of facial paralysis associated with hypothyroidism was based on the history, clinical and neurological examination findings, laboratory assessment of thyroid function by observing low serum free T4 and high concentrations of TSH, the therapeutic response after supplementation levothyroxine sodium, and exclusion of other possible causes, such as otitis interna and traumatic. The pathogenesis of this change associated with hypothyroidism is not completely understood, although it is believed that cranial nerve paralysis (trigeminal, facial and vestibulocochlear) may result from the resulting compression of myxedema deposit nerve or in the tissues of the head and neck, demyelination caused by disordered metabolism of Schwann cells, decreased blood perfusion of the inner ear secondary to hyperlipidemia and increased blood viscosity or metabolic defects ranging from change in axonal transport to severe axonal loss. Treatment consists of supplementation of levothyroxine and most dogs with neurological disorders associated with hypothyroidism will present partial or total improvement of clinical signs between two and four months, generally being observed improvement within the first week of treatment. In the dog this report, after the beginning of treatment, improvement was observed partial and total clinical signs in 15 and 32 days, respectively. Therefore, with appropriate treatment, hypothyroidism is a disease with an excellent prognosis. The report brings to clinical relevance, the importance of hypothyroidism in the differential diagnosis of facial paralysis in dogs with face asymmetry history, the laboratory evaluation of thyroid function and response to therapy with levothyroxine sodium supplementation essential for definitive diagnosis

5 de ago de 2016

Spinal T.V.T. Treated with Surgical Excision and Chemotherapy in a Dog

Monica Vicky Bahr Arias, Larissa Garbelini Valentim & Bianca Ishikawa

Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2016. 44(Suppl 1): 142



     Canine transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) is a round-cell tumor of dogs, which occurs by cell transplantation. It is usually located on the external genitalia, and is transmitted by coitus. It may occasionally be acquired by sniffing or licking the genitalia of an affected animal. Lesions may be present in the other parts of the body, such as the skin, rectum, and nasal or oral cavities. Metastasis of the TVT is uncommon, mainly occurring in immunocompromised dogs. It may affect organs such as the liver, spleen, kidney, lung, and musculature, and rarely, may be detected in the central nervous system. In this report, we describe the occurrence of a TVT causing spinal cord compression in a dog, and the results of its treatment with hemilaminectomy and chemotherapy. 
       A six-year-old male Dalmatian dog was referred to a veterinary teaching hospital with nonspecific abdominal pain. Laboratory examination showed no abnormalities; survey radiography revealed a moderate fecal retention. The dog received painkillers and dietary guidelines. However, the patient was brought again to the veterinary teaching hospital nine days later with paraplegia, worse in the left limb than in the right, but with normal nociception. There was a cutaneous trunci reflex cut-off at the T10 vertebra, also worse on left side than on right, along with spinal thoracolumbar hyperesthesia. During endotracheal intubation for general anesthesia for performing a cerebrospinal fluid tap and myelography, a small mass was observed in the palatine tonsil, a sample of which was collected for cytological analysis. The cerebrospinal fluid examination showed albuminocytologic dissociation, and myelography revealed an asymmetrical epidural compression over the T8 vertebra. Surgery was performed with a lateral approach to the T8 vertebra, and a 3-cm epidural brown mass was found, which was completely excised and subjected to histopathological examination. The histopathological findings of the mass excised from the spine revealed neoplastic proliferation of poorly differentiated, round tumor cells with large, round, central or peripheral nuclei, and slightly eosinophilic, occasionally vacuolar cytoplasm. The propagating cells formed groups separated by a delicate fibrovascular stroma, consistent with the histopathology of TVT. Upon immunohistochemical staining, the neoplastic cells were found to be positive for MHC II, CD45RA, and lysozyme, but negative for cytokeratin, CD3, CD20, and CD117. The cytological examination of the tonsillar mass confirmed TVT. The dog was treated with vincristine, but after the third cycle the treatment was discontinued due to the choice of the owner. A year after the treatment, the dog presents only a mild spinal ataxia. 
        Tumor cells can be transmitted through genital mucous membrane-contact at coitus. Hence, the TVT lesions are often located on the external genitalia, but this was not observed in this case. Non-cutaneous metastases, which have an incidence of about 1%, can occur on the lips and tonsils, as was observed in the present case, or in the inguinal lymph nodes, liver, kidneys, mesentery, bones, eye, brain, and abdominal cavity. The pathological characteristics of TVT is quite variable and depends on the host immune response; however, there was no evidence of immunosuppression or malnutrition in the present case. The patient might have acquired the neoplasia in the oral cavity probably from licking or sniffing the preputial or vaginal discharges of an infected dog, and therefore, the primary tumor was probably the one in the tonsil, which later metastasized to the spine. This case presents an atypically located TVT, without genital occurrence, that was successfully treated by surgery and chemotherapy. This report also indicates that TVT is also an important differential diagnosis of spinal neoplasia.