27 de jul. de 2020

[Tratamento clínico de cães com diagnóstico presuntivo de doença do disco intervertebral cervical: 78 casos (2006-2017)

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 40(3):176-180, March 2020

Clinical management of dogs with presumptive diagnosis of cervical intervertebral disc disease: 78 cases (2006-2017)

Raquel Baumhardt , Angel Ripplinger , Graciane Aiello , Marcelo L. Schwab , Denis A. Ferrarin , Mathias R. Wrzesinski , Samanta S. Moro and Alexandre Mazzanti


LINK PARA O ARTIGO


RESUMO

O objetivo desse estudo foi identificar cães com diagnóstico presuntivo de doença do disco intervertebral cervical (DDIV; C1-C5 ou C6-T2) submetidos ao tratamento clínico e avaliar a resposta a terapia instituída e o índice de recidiva. Esse estudo também visou demonstrar a idade, o gênero e a resposta ao tratamento de acordo com o grau neurológico, a fim de verificar se esses parâmetros podem ser utilizados como fatores prognósticos para a evolução clínica desses pacientes. Foram revisados os registros neurológicos do Hospital Veterinário Universitário de janeiro de 2006 a março de 2017. Realizaram coleta de dados a partir dos registros e por meio de um questionário respondido pelos tutores. Avaliaram 177 fichas neurológicas de cães e obtidas informações para inclusão no estudo em 78 delas. As raças mais frequentes foram Dachshunds, seguido dos cães sem raça definida. Quanto ao grau de disfunção neurológica, 58,97% apresentavam grau I (somente dor), 25,64% estavam em grau II (tetraparesia ambulatória) e 15,38% em grau III (tetraparesia não ambulatória). O repouso absoluto e em espaço restrito foram realizados em 75,64% e 24,36% dos casos, respectivamente e com duração de no mínimo uma semana, podendo chegar a mais de quatro semanas. A maioria dos animais era de pequeno porte (≤15kg). A recuperação foi satisfatória em 87,17% dos cães e insatisfatória em 12,83%. Quanto à recidiva, esta foi observada em 10,3% dos pacientes com recuperação satisfatória. O tratamento clínico para cães com DDIV cervical pode ser indicado com adequada resposta clínica para graus de disfunção que variam de I a III, seja em repouso absoluto ou em espaço restrito e com baixo índice de recidiva.

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify dogs with a presumptive diagnosis of cervical intervertebral disc disease (IVDD; C1-C5 or C6-T2) submitted to clinical management and evaluate the outcome. This study also aimed to demonstrate the age, sex, and treatment response according to the neurological degree, and verify whether those factors could potentially influence the outcome. The data were obtained from patients with a neurological dysfunction, admitted at the Veterinary Hospital from January 2006 to March 2017. In addition to patient records, the tutors answered a questionnaire related to the success of therapy. A hundred and seventyseven neurological records were evaluated, and 78 were included in the study according to the inclusion criteria. The most frequent breeds were Dachshunds, followed by mixed-breed dogs. Regarding the neurological dysfunction degree, 58.97% presented grade I (only neck pain), 25.64% were grade II (ambulatory tetraparesis), and 15.38% grade III (nonambulatory tetraparesis). Absolute and partial space rest were performed in 75.64% and 24.36% of the cases, respectively. The minimum rest time was one week and could come up to four weeks. Most dogs were small-sized (≤15kg). The recovery was satisfactory in 87.17% of dogs and unsatisfactory in 12.83%. Regarding recurrence, we observed that 10.3% of dogs presented satisfactory recovery. The clinical treatment for dogs with cervical IVDD can be indicated with adequate clinical response to dysfunction degrees ranging from I to III, either at rest or in restricted space and with a low rate of relapse.

20 de jul. de 2020

Tratamento clínico de cães com diagnóstico presuntivo de doença do disco intervertebral toracolombar: 164 casos (2006-2017)

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 40(1):55-60, January 2020

Raquel Baumhardt , Angel Ripplinger , Graciane Aiello , Marcelo L. Schwab , Denis A. Ferrarin , Mathias R. Wrzesinski , Julia Rauber and Alexandre Mazzanti

Clinical management of dogs with presumptive diagnosis of thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease: 164 cases (2006-2017)

LINK PARA O ARTIGO

RESUMO

 O objetivo desse estudo foi identificar cães com diagnóstico presuntivo de DDIV toracolombar submetidos ao tratamento clínico, a fim de avaliar a resposta à terapia instituída. Foram revisados os registros neurológicos  de cães atendidos pelo Serviço de Neurologia e Neurocirurgia Veterinária no período de 2006 a 2017 de um Hospital Veterinário Universitário. Foi realizada coleta de dados a partir dos registros e por meio de um questionário respondido pelos tutores. Foram avaliadas 413 fichas neurológicas de cães e obtidas informações para inclusão no estudo em 164 delas. As raças mais frequentes foram dachshunds, seguido de cães sem raça definida. Quanto ao grau de disfunção neurológica foi definido como grau I para 15,9% dos cães, grau II para 25,6%, grau III para 26,8%, grau IV para 8,5% e grau V para 23,2%. A recuperação foi satisfatória em 71,6% dos cães e insatisfatória em 28,4%. Dos que se recuperaram satisfatoriamente, 27,7% tiveram recidivas. Com base nos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que o tratamento clínico em repouso absoluto e administração de anti-inflamatórios e analgésicos opióides para cães com DDIV toracolombar é efetivo, principalmente para cães em graus mais leves da doença (grau I, II e III). Há possibilidade de recidiva com esse tipo de terapia cujos sinais clínicos poderão ser mais graves.

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify dogs with presumptive diagnosis of cervical intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) submitted to clinical management and to evaluate the outcomes. Data were obtained from the medical records of patients with neurological dysfunction assisted at a University Veterinary Hospital from 2006 to 2017. In addition to the patients’ records, dog owners responded to a questionnaire on the success of therapy. Four hundred and thirteen neurological records were evaluated, and 164 met the inclusion criteria of the study. The most common breed was Dachshund, followed by mongrels. Classification of neurological dysfunction in the study sample was as follows: 15.9% with grade I, 25.6% with grade II, 26.8% with grade III, 8.5% with grade IV, and 23.2% with grade V. Outcome was satisfactory in 71.6% of the dogs and unsatisfactory in 28.4% of them. Recurrence was observed in 27.7% of those with satisfactory outcomes. The clinical treatment of dogs with thoracolumbar IVDD is satisfactory, particularly for animals with milder disease grades (I, II, and III). There is possibility of recurrence with conservative therapy and clinical signs may be more severe

14 de jul. de 2020

Terapia médica utilizando omeprazol em 12 cães hidrocefálicos: achados clínicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos

Medical therapy using omeprazole in 12 hydrocephalic dogs: clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic findings

Lidianne F. Pelegrini , Natalino F. Silva , Olga P.S. Campos , Clazielen C. Nery , Felipe M. Silva, Raquel S. Lemos, Kelly C.I. Yamauchi and Alexandre M. Amude


Pesq. Vet. Bras. 39(10):823-829, October 2019

Link para publicação

RESUMO

O omeprazol diminui a produção do fluido cerebrospinal (FCE) por cerca de 26% de acordo com estudos experimentais em cães saudáveis. Segundo o conhecimento dos autores, embora utilizado na prática clínica e recomendado em livros textos, não há até o momento estudos clínicos em um grupo substancial de animais avaliando a resposta terapêutica ao uso do omeprazol em pacientes enfermos, tais como cães hidrocefálicos sintomáticos. Este trabalho descreve os achados clínicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos em 12 cães com hidrocefalia que foram submetidos ao tratamento com omeprazol para o manejo médico de hidrocefalia. O diagnóstico de hidrocefalia e doenças neurológicas concomitantes foi realizado por ultrassonografia transcraniana (USTC) e/ou tomografia computadorizada. A mensuração do tamanho ventricular foi realizada pela USTC durante o tratamento médico. Seis cães foram diagnosticados com hidrocefalia não obstrutiva e os outros 6 casos apresentaram hidrofalia concomitante com outras afecções encefálicas anômalas comumente associada à hidrocefalia obstrutiva, tal como cisto quadrigêmio, cisto aracnóide, síndrome de chiari-like e seringomegalia. Em 10 cães o omeprazol foi utilizado como droga única e em 2 cães a terapia inicial foi a convencional utilizando esteroides e diuréticos, e o omeprazol foi adicionado, pois a resposta clínica a terapia convencional foi insatisfatória. Todos os animais obtiveram melhora dos parâmetros neurológicos e a maioria teve uma redução do tamanho ventricular após o uso do omeprazol. Os resultados deste estudo demonstram que o omeprazol pode ser utilizado para melhorar o estado neurológico em cães com hidrocefalia. Este estudo representa a primeira descrição clínica usando o omeprazol para tratar uma série de cães com suspeita de aumento da pressão intracraniana devido à hidrocefalia, provavelmente pela capacidade do fármaco em limitar a produção do FCE.


ABSTRACT

According to experimental studies with healthy dogs, omeprazole might decrease the CSF production by about 26%; therefore, book texts have been suggested the usage of omeprazole in medical protocols for hydrocephalus treatment. However, to the best knowledge of the authors, the usage and medical response of the omeprazole with substantial group of illness dogs, such as hydrocephalic animals, was lacking. This report describes clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic findings in 12 dogs with hydrocephalus in which omeprazole were used for medical treatment. The diagnosis of hydrocephalus was accomplished by transcranial sonography (TCS) and/or computed tomography. The ventricular measurement was assessed periodically by TCS during medical treatment. Six dogs were diagnosed with non-obstrutive hydrocephalus and in the other 6 cases hydrocephalus occurred with other concomitant anomalous encephalic disease often related with obstructive hysdrocephalus, such as quadrigeminal cist, arachnoid cyst, chiary-like malformation, and syringomyelia. All of them had medical improvement after the use of omeprazole and the most of the cases had ventricular size reduction. In 10 dogs, the omeprazole was used as single drug, and in 2 dogs medical treatment with steroids and/or diuretics was previously being performed, and omeprazole was added because conventional treatment was resulting in mild to unsatisfactory medical control of the neurological status. The results of this paper shown that omeprazole may be used to ameliorate the neurological status in symptomatic hydrocephalic dogs. This work may represent the first description about the use of omeprazole in order to treat a substantial group of affected dogs with suspected increased intracranial pressure by hydrocephalus, probably due to limitation of CSF production


10 de jul. de 2020

Achados clínicos, histopatológicos e moleculares da mielopatia degenerativa canina: relato de caso

Clinical, histopathological and molecular findings of canine degenerative myelopathy: case report

LINK DO ARTIGO

C.R.O. Santos , A.M. Amude , F.P. Araújo , F.C.M. Bezerra , J.F. Nogueira , J.J.S. Gouveia , D. Baraúna Júnior

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.72, n.2, p.339-345, 2020


RESUMO

 Objetivou-se descrever os achados clínicos, histopatológicos e moleculares associados à MDC em um cão da raça Pastor-Suiço. O cão possuía uma paraparesia progressiva em membros pélvicos e foi submetido a avaliações clínicas, pelas quais se obteve, entre outros diferenciais, o diagnóstico presuntivo de MDC. Com a evolução dos sinais, o tutor optou pela eutanásia. Os achados histopatológicos da medula espinhal foram compatíveis com uma degeneração segmentar axonal e mielínica. O diagnóstico molecular foi realizado por meio da extração do DNA obtido por swab oral. Uma PCR foi otimizada utilizando-se primers descritos em literatura para amplificar a região do gene SOD1. A amostra foi, então, submetida a sequenciamento unidirecional, que revelou que o animal em questão era homozigoto para o alelo A para a mutação c.118G>A no éxon 2 do gene SOD1. O diagnóstico clínico presuntivo da MDC no presente caso foi esclarecido por meio dos achados histopatológicos, associados aos achados clínicos, e da sua caracterização molecular. Ressalta-se a contribuição deste relato, que traz aspectos clínicos, histopatológicos e moleculares associados à MDC na raça Pastor-Suíço, para a qual, até o presente momento, na literatura consultada, não há relato dessa enfermidade. 

ABSTRACT 

The objective of this study was to describe the clinical, histopathological and molecular findings associated with MDC in a Swiss Shepherd dog. The dog had a progressive paraparesis in pelvic limbs and was submitted to clinical evaluations where, among other differentials, the presumptive diagnosis of MDC was obtained. With the progression of the nervous deficits tutor opted for euthanasia. The histopathological findings of the spinal cord were compatible with axonal and myelinic segmental degeneration. Molecular diagnosis was performed by extracting the DNA obtained by oral swab. PCR was optimized using primers described in the literature to amplify the SOD1 gene region. The sample was then subjected to one-way sequencing which revealed that the animal in question was homozygous for the A allele for the c.118G>A mutation in exon 2 of the SOD1 gene. The presumptive diagnosis of MDC in the present case was clarified by histopathological findings, as well as by its molecular characterization. The contribution of this report brings clinical, histopathological and molecular aspects associated with canine degenerative myelopathy in the Swiss Shepherd breed, that until this moment, in the literature consulted, there is no report of this disease in the breed mentioned. 




6 de jul. de 2020

Clomipramina no tratamento da perseguição compulsiva da cauda em Bull Terrier – relato de caso

Clomipramine in the treatment of compulsive tail pursuit in bull terrier – case report

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.72, n.1, p.125-130, 2020 

S.M. Caramalac , N.D. Chimenes , M.I.P. Palumbo

link

RESUMO

A perseguição compulsiva da cauda consiste em um distúrbio caracterizado por movimentos giratórios em círculos, lentos a rápidos com ou sem foco na cauda. É uma desordem comportamental comumente observada em cães da raça Bull Terrier, sendo mais frequente em machos, com início entre três e seis meses de idade. O diagnóstico é realizado com base no histórico do paciente junto com exames físico, neurológico e laboratoriais. O tratamento pode ser feito por meio do manejo ambiental e da retirada de fatores estressantes aliados a medicamentos antidepressivos. O objetivo deste artigo é relatar o caso de um Bull Terrier que apresentava perseguição compulsiva da cauda e teve evidente melhora clínica 75 dias após início do tratamento com clomipramina. A melhora foi ainda maior após a orquiectomia. A clomipramina consiste em um antidepressivo tricíclico promissor no tratamento de perseguição compulsiva da cauda em cães, devendo-se associar alteração no manejo ambiental e evitar gatilhos que induzam frustração, ansiedade e conflito.

ABSTRACT 

The compulsive pursuit of the tail is characterized by a rotating movement in circles, slow to fast with or without focus on the tail. It is a disorder commonly observed in bull terrier dogs, being more frequent in males, beginning between 3 and 6 months of age. Diagnosis can be made based on patient history along with physical, neurological, and laboratory tests. Treatment can be done through environmental management and withdrawal of stressors allied with antidepressant drugs. The objective of this article is to report the case of a Bull Terrier that had compulsive pursuit of the tail and had evident clinical improvement 75 days after starting treatment with clomipramine. The improvement was even greater after orchiectomy. Clomipramine is the promising tricyclic antidepressant in the treatment of compulsive tail chasing in dogs. It should be associated with changes in environmental management and avoid triggers that induce frustration, anxiety and conflict. 





17 de dez. de 2019

Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis in Dogs and Cats with Neurological Diseases

Análise do líquido cérebro-espinhal em cães e gatos com afecções neurológicas

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Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2019. 47: 1704

Renato Tavares Conceição, Karina Keller Marques da Costa Flaiban , Fernanda Catacci Guimarães & Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias

ABSTRACT

 Background: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is of great importance for evaluation of patients with central nervous system problems, because it helps to confirm or exclude many diseases when evaluated together with other relevant clinical and ancillary laboratory tests. As there are few studies in Brazil describing results of CSF analysis in dogs and cats, the objective of the present study was to evaluate results of CSF analysis in a period of ten years, grouping the changes observed, mainly total and differential cell count and total protein concentration, according to the following etiological categories of diseases: inflammatory, degenerative, traumatic, neoplastic and vascular disorders. Materials, Methods & Results: Medical records of dogs and cats with neurological diseases that had CSF collected and analyzed at a Veterinary Teaching Hospital between 2008 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Patient data included breed, sex, body weight, age at presentation, findings of clinical and neurological examination, results of CSF analysis, diagnostic imaging and other laboratory tests results including PCR and serologies for infectious diseases. A total of 245 CSF exams were studied (240 dogs and five cats). The established normal range for protein concentration was less than 25 mg/dL for cisternal collection and less than 45 mg/dL for lumbar puncture. Total nucleated cell count was considered normal when less than 5 cells/µL, with a predominance of mononuclear cells. Both pleocytosis and increased concentration of the protein level were classified as discrete, moderate and marked, and the pleocytosis was further classified as mononuclear, neutrophilic and mixed cell pleocytosis. The information obtained was analyzed in relation to the neurological syndromes and etiological categories of neurological diseases. The most frequent syndrome was thoracolumbar and the less frequent was cerebellar. Regarding the etiological categories, the most frequent in decreasing order were inflammatory, infectious, degenerative, neoplastic, traumatic, vascular and episodic. CSF examination was abnormal in 72% of cases. In viral infectious diseases, there was predominantly mononuclear pleocytosis with a slight increase of protein, whereas in dogs with presumptive diagnosis of meningoencephalitis of unknown origin (MUO), marked mononuclear and mixed pleocytosis predominated with moderate to marked protein increase. In degenerative diseases, however, the absence of pleocytosis or mild pleocytosis, with normal to slightly increased protein was most observed. In neoplastic diseases there was a high frequency of mild to moderate pleocytosis, with and without albuminocytological dissociation, while in spinal trauma there was mainly mononuclear pleocytosis. A slight increase in protein was observed mainly in infectious, degenerative, neoplastic and traumatic diseases, while moderate to marked increase was more observed in cases of presumptive diagnosis of MUO. Albuminocytological dissociation was observed in half of the cases of neoplasia and less frequently in degenerative, infectious and traumatic diseases.
Discussion: The exam was altered in a considerable number of patients and provided important information even when normal. The diseases with more abnormalities were inflammatory/infectious and neoplastic diseases. When the exam was normal, the most frequent condition was degenerative diseases. Although the changes were not specific for each class of neurological disease, there were certain trends regarding pleocytosis type and protein increase in some of them. Based on the results of this retrospective study, result of CSF analysis, when interpreted along with signalment, etiological categories of diseases, neurological syndromes, and results of other complementary tests, provided support for the diagnosis of various neurological diseases.

8 de nov. de 2019

Neoplasmas encefálicos em cães idosos / Brain Neoplasms in Elderly Dogs

Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2019. 47(Suppl 1): 384

LINK

Carolina da Fonseca Sapin, Cristina Gevehr Fernandes, Márcia de Oliveira Nobre & Fabiane Borelli Grecco

Background: The prevalence of intracranial neoplasms in dogs represents 2.1 to 4.0% of the cases. Brain tumors may be primary or metastatic. The objective of this study was to describe two cases of intra encephalic neoplasia in elderly dogs received for necropsy by the Veterinary Oncology Service in the Federal University of Pelotas. 
Cases: 
Case 1: A 12-year-old female canine, without breed and medium size, was received for necropsy. The animal has had behavioral changes. Macroscopic examination of the encephalus revealed asymmetry and congestion. The organs were collected and fixed in 10% formalin. In the brain cleavage we noticed an extensive brown-gray mass with reddish areas, expansive, moderately demarcated, soft to cut and discrete hydrocephalus. Serial fragments of the brain and fragments of the organs were sent for processing. The slides were stained with the hematoxylin and eosin technique for histopathological analysis. At the microscopic examination, cuboidal cells were observed in the encephalus sometimes in acinar arrangements, of extensive and very limited pattern, diagnosed as ependymoma. Case 2: It is a 15-year-old, female Poodle dog, with several tumors. During necropsy multiple subcutaneous nodules, mesentery, intestinal serosa, stomach and liver were noticed. At the cut these were firm and whitish. No macroscopic changes were observed in the other organs. Fragments of organs and brain were collected and a serial section of the encephalus was performed for further processing and histological analysis. In the histopathological analysis the masses were constituted by proliferation of sometimes rounded cells, elongated, with rounded nuclei and eosinophilic cytoplasm, allowing the diagnosis of mesothelioma. The same cell pattern was observed in other organs. In the frontal cortex of the encephalus there were small foci of cells similar to those observed in the mesentery, as well as metastatic emboli in the meningeal and encephalic vessels, characterizing the diagnosis of metastatic mesothelioma. 
Discussion: Neoplasms of the central nervous system may be primary or metastatic. The ependymoma observed in case 1 was only diagnosed after visualization of the encephalic mass during necropsy, pointing to the importance of postmortem examination. Brain neoplasms in dogs occur with a frequency and variety similar to that of humans. Most of these are found in older dogs, and 95% of those affected are over five years of age. One situation that may occur in ependymomas is the development of obstructive hydrocephalus by the expansion of the neoplasm into the ventricular system. The animal studied in case 1 presented behavioral changes for weeks before death, and at necropsy ventricular dilation was evidenced, suggesting that hydrocephalus had occurred and the behavioral changes due to tumor localization. Metastatic brain neoplasms occur due to the hematogenous spread of many tumors. The species in which the metastatic neoplasms are most commonly described is the canine. Metastases of mesotheliomas in the central nervous system are rare, which reinforces the need for a thorough postmortem examination, as evidenced in the second case of this study, since the animal did not manifest clinically signs of neurological involvement and the metastasis was only identified microscopically by serial cuts of the encephalon. It can be concluded that detailed, systematic and serial post-mortem examination of the central nervous system should be part of the diagnostic routine even if no clinical neurological signs are evident. The reports presented here are of importance since they are considered rare diagnoses of primary and metastatic brain tumors.

7 de nov. de 2019

Neuropathic pain and prognosis of a dog submitted to limb amputation after diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma - case report

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.71, n.4, p.1116-1120, 2019

LINK

M.G.P.A. Ferreira , A.V. Antunes , A.L. Pascoli , T.L. Nazaret  , A.P. Gering , N.P. Reis Filho , M.T. Costa , A.B. Nardi

Neuropathic pain occurs when there is a lesion or a dysfunction of the nervous system. Humans and veterinary patients may develop neuropathic pain, but in veterinary it is not often reported probably because of its mistaken diagnosis. A canine patient was admitted to the Veterinary Hospital of UNESPJaboticabal-SP, Brazil with a nodule on the left thoracic limb. The nodule was surgically removed, and histopathological analysis demonstrated the tumor was a soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and the margins were not clean. Based on the patient’s health condition and the lack of suitable equipment, the next procedure was limb amputation. The patient received analgesic medication in the post-surgery period; nevertheless, clinical signs of neuropathic pain were present, such as compulsive licking and other behavioral disorders. Medications were administered for forty days, but clinical signs ceased only when replaced with a tryciclic antidepressant drug, Amitriptyline. Therapeutic management of the patient in this report can be considered effective, since five years after the end of the treatment there was no recurrence or presence of metastasis. 


Dor neuropática e prognóstico de um cão submetido à amputação de membro após diagnóstico de sarcoma de tecidos moles - relato de caso

A dor neuropática ocorre quando há uma lesão ou disfunção do sistema nervoso. Tanto pacientes humanos quanto veterinários podem desenvolver a dor neuropática, mas na medicina veterinária ela é pouco relatada provavelmente por não ser corretamente diagnosticada. Um paciente canino foi atendido no Hospital Veterinário da Unesp-Jaboticabal, SP, Brasil, com um nódulo em membro torácico esquerdo. O nódulo foi removido cirurgicamente, e o exame histopatológico evidenciou a presença de sarcoma de tecidos moles (STM) e de margens comprometidas. Baseando-se nas condições de saúde do paciente e na ausência de equipamentos adequados, o próximo procedimento foi a amputação do membro. No pós-cirúrgico, o animal recebeu medicações analgésicas, todavia, mesmo assim, apresentava sinais de dor neuropática, como lambedura compulsiva e outros distúrbios comportamentais. O tratamento para dor aguda se estendeu por 40 dias; no entanto, os sinais clínicos cessaram apenas quando os analgésicos comuns foram substituídos por um medicamento antidepressivo tricíclico, a amitriptilina. O manejo terapêutico do paciente do presente relato pode ser considerado satisfatório, uma vez que, após cinco anos do término do tratamento, não houve recidiva nem presença de metástase. 


4 de nov. de 2019

Encefalite parasitária em cadela

Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2019. 47(Suppl 1): 431.

LINK

Lygia Silva Galeno , Brenda Lurian do Nascimento Medeiros , Sávio Matheus Reis de Carvalho , Vanessa Brígida Pinheiro Rodrigues, Pablo Martins Veloso de Sousa , Joanna Jéssica Sousa Albuquerque , Bruno Martins Araújo & Francisco Lima Silva


Background: Encephalitis is common in most inflammatory and infectious diseases of the central nervous system, and bacterial and viral pathogens, protozoa, fungi, and erythematous parasites are recognized as etiological agents. Clinical signs vary according to the anatomical location and severity of the inflammation. Some parasites may undergo aberrant migration into the brain of dogs and cats, which is are considered a rare clinical phenomenon. This case report describes the occurrence of parasitic encephalitis in a mixed breed bitch about 4 year-old. 
Case: A mixed breed bitch, about 4 year-old, rescued from the street with weakness of the pelvic limbs, was treated at the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Piauí - UFPI. After A clinical and neurological examination, the patient was hospitalized for diagnosis, treatment, confirmation and follow-up of her clinical evolution. Complementary tests were performed to evaluate her general condition, given her unknown history because she was a rescue dog. Complete blood count (CBC), hemoparasite screening, biochemical function (urea, creatinine, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin and globulin), abdominal and pelvic ultrasound, serological and parasitological tests for leishmaniasis, distemper antigen and ehrlichiosis antibody detection tests were performed, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected for analysis. The CBC revealed normocytic hypochromic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Biochemical functions were within normal limits, except for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), which was slightly low. The ultrasound examination showed splenomegaly. The canine distemper, ehrlichiosis and leishmaniasis tests were negative. The results of the CSF analysis revealed the presence of spherical structures compatible with parasitic cysts, suggestive of Echinococcus granulosus. After the laboratory diagnosis of parasitic encephalitis, the animal was treated with prednisolone, albendazole, praziquantel and doxycycline. Three days after starting treatment for parasitic encephalitis, the patient presented significant clinical improvement, began to feed again and to move around.
Discussion: The presence of parasitic cysts in cerebrospinal fluid is uncommon; however, encephalitis due to aberrant parasite migration has been described in dogs and cats. The migration and growth of the parasite causes extensive damage to the neural parenchyma. The clinical signs of worm encephalitis tend to show acute to super-acute onset, and the definitive diagnosis depends on the identification of the parasitic agent in the patient’s brain. This type of diagnosis has so far been performed only during necropsy. In the case reported here, parasitic cysts were identified in CSF, thus confirming and formulating a definitive diagnosis. It is rare to find microorganisms and tumor cells in samples of cerebrospinal fluid; however, if this occurs, a definitive diagnosis can be formulated. The use of cerebrospinal fluid is therefore an important diagnostic tool when other imaging tests such as tomography and magnetic resonance provide limited access. Praziquantel and Albendazole are recommended for the treatment of Echinococcus, prednisolone is recommended for cases of encephalitis, and prophylactic antibiotic therapy is used to prevent secondary bacterial meningoencephalitis. The recommended treatment was efficient for this patient, and could be adopted to treat other dogs with parasitic encephalitis. The main forms of prevention in dogs are periodic worming, and the ingestion of only processed or cooked foods and treated water.

29 de out. de 2019

Feline lymphoma in the nervous system: pathological, immunohistochemical, and etiological aspects in 16 cats

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 39(6):393-401, June 2019

LINK

Lauren S. Mello, Ronaldo V. Leite-Filho , Welden Panziera , Marcele B. Bandinelli , Luciana Sonne , David Driemeier and Saulo P. Pavarini

The pathological, immunohistochemical (IHC), and etiological features of lymphoma involving the nervous system (NS) in cats were analyzed through a retrospective study (2004-2017) in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The NS involvement was observed in 16 (12.2%) of 125 felines with lymphoma. Young cats were mainly affected, with a median of 24 months old. Most cases were secondary central NS lymphoma, whereas in three cats, the NS involvement was primary. IHC revealed 14 (87.5%) FeLV-positive, six FIV-positive, and one FeLV/FIV-negative cats. Distribution of feline lymphoma in the NS was 8/16 in the spinal cord, 7/16 in the brain, and 1/16 in the paravertebral nerves and ganglia (neurolymphomatosis). The lymphoma pattern in the spinal cord was exclusively extradural, often focal (6/8), and located in the lumbar (3/6), sacral (1/6), thoracic (1/6), and cervical segments (1/6). Brain neuroanatomical patterns were: leptomeningeal lymphomatosis (4/7), lymphomatous choroiditis (2/7), and intradural lymphoma (1/7). The feline with primary neurolymphomatosis presented a marked thickening of paravertebral nerves and ganglia from the sacral region. B-cell lymphoma (75%) was often diagnosed, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (11/16) was the main subtype. T-cell lymphoma (25%) was less commonly observed and was classified as peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) (3/16) and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) (1/16)

Linfoma no sistema nervoso de felinos: aspectos patológicos, imuno-histoquímicos e etiológicos em 16 gatos

RESUMO

Os aspectos patológicos, imuno-histoquímicos (IHQ) e etiológicos do linfoma envolvendo o sistema nervoso de felinos foram analisados através de um estudo retrospectivo (período de 2004-2017) no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. O envolvimento do sistema nervoso foi observado em 16 (12,2%) dos 125 felinos com linfoma desse estudo e afetou principalmente, jovens com idade mediana de 24 meses. A grande maioria dos casos o linfoma era secundário no sistema nervoso central e somente em três gatos o linfoma foi primário do sistema nervoso. Na IHQ, 14 (87,5%) casos foram positivos para FeLV, seis (37,5%) para FIV, e um foi negativo para ambos. A distribuição do linfoma no sistema nervoso foi em 8/16 felinos na medula espinhal, 7/16 no encéfalo e em 1/16 em nervos e gânglios paravertebrais (neurolinfomatose). Na medula espinhal, o padrão do linfoma foi exclusivamente extradural e frequentemente focal (6/8), localizadas nos segmentos lombares (3/6), sacrais (1/6), torácicos (1/6) e cervicais (1/6). No encéfalo, os padrões neuroanatômicos observados foram: linfomatose leptomeningeal (4/7), coroidite linfomatosa (2/7), linfoma intradural (1/7). No felino diagnosticado com neurolinfomatose primária, foi observado acentuado espessamento dos nervos e gânglios paravertebrais da região sacral. Os linfomas de células de células B (75%) foram os mais frequentes e o principal tipo foi o linfoma difuso de grandes células B (11/16). Os linfomas de células T (25%), menos observados, foram classificados como linfomas de células T periférico inespecífico (3/16) e linfoma linfoblástico T (1/16).

25 de out. de 2019

Neuron-specific enolase as biomarker for possible neuronal damage in dogs with distemper virus

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 39(1):47-51, janeiro 2019

LINK

Bruno Cesar Elias , Alice F. Alfieri , Italmar T. Navarro and Lucas A. Gomes


Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is a biomarker of neuronal cell lysis, which demonstrates stability in extracellular fluids such as blood and cerebrospinal fluid. To the authors knowledge there is no research information comparing the use of NSE in dogs with and without encephalitis, putting in evidence the importance of that biomarker to detect neuronal damage in dogs. The objective was to compare the serum NSE levels in dogs with and without encephalitis, and to determine the serum NSE levels in normal dogs. Thirty eight dogs were evaluated, 19 dogs with encephalitis (EG Group) and 19 dogs without encephalitis (CG Group). The criteria for inclusion in the EG Group were presence of neurological signs in more than one part of the CNS (multifocal syndrome) and positive molecular diagnosis for canine distemper virus; for the CG Group were an age between 1 to 7 years and be clinically normal; NSE were measured in serum using an ELISA assay, and the results were compared. In the EG Group the NSE values were higher with significant difference (P=0.0053) when compared with the CG Group. NSE is a biomarker that can be measured in serum samples of dogs to monitor neuronal lesions in encephalitis.

16 de out. de 2019

Leucoencefalite necrosante em um cão Yorkshire do Brasil

Semina: Ciências Agrárias, Londrina, v. 40, n. 6, suplemento 2, p. 3321-3326, 2019

LINK

Alexandre Mendes Amude ; Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias ; Selwyn Arlington Headley ; Ana Paula Frederico Rodrigues Loureiro Bracarense ; Natalino Francisco Silva ; Amauri Alcindo Alfieri

Leucoencefalite necrosante (LEN) é uma condição inflamatória encefálica incomum. A NLE foi descrita em cães da América do Norte, Europa e Ásia, mas, de acordo com o conhecimento dos autores, não há diagnóstico definitivo dessa doença na América do Sul. O objetivo do presente relato foi descrever um caso de leucoencefalite necrosante diagnosticado em um cão do Brasil. A doença é descrita em um cão Yorkshire fêmea de 3,5 anos com apresentação neurológica afetando principalmente o mielencéfalo; o animal veio a óbito, apesar do tratamento médico, e foi submetida a autopsia e avaliação histopatológica. As lesões estavam restritas ao encéfalo e foram caracterizadas por necrose da substância branca e extensa inflamação não-supurativa do neurópilo e presença de grandes manguitos perivasculares; a resposta inflamatória não-supurativa foi caracterizada principalmente por infiltração de linfócitos e histiócitos, e ocasionais plasmócitos e células gitter. Agentes infecciosos não foram detectados por técnicas moleculares e também não foram identificados por colorações histológicas. Este relato representa o primeiro caso de LEN com diagnóstico anatomopatológico no Brasil, demonstrando que esta doença está presente em cães Sul Americanos que sofrem de condições neurológicas. Esta informação é útil para os médicos veterinários no Brasil, levando em consideração que esta doença deve ser considerada como um diagnóstico diferencial quando as causas infecciosas forem excluídas.

Necrotizing leukoencephalitis in a Yorkshire dog from Brazil

Necrotizing leukoencephalitis (NLE) is an uncommon inflammatory condition of brain of dogs, and was described in dogs from North America, Europe, and Asia. Cases of NLE from South America were not located when major data bases were examined. Consequently, this report describes the findings associated with NLE in a Brazilian 3.5-year-old female Yorkshire dog with neurological findings related to the myelencephalon; the dog died, besides medical treatment, and was submitted for autopsy exam and histopathological evaluation. Lesions were restricted to the encephalon and characterized as leukoencephalomalacia with severe non-suppurative inflammation with extensive perivascular cuffing; the non-suppurative inflammation was characterized by influx of lymphocytes and histiocytes, and occasionally plasma cells, and gitter cells. Infectious disease agents were not identified by molecular techniques or visualized with histochemical stains. This report represents the first definitive diagnose of NLE in Brazil, suggesting that this disease may be present in South America dogs suffering from neurological conditions. This knowledge may be useful for veterinarians in Brazil, taking into account that this disease should be considered as a differential diagnosis when infectious causes are excluded. 

4 de fev. de 2019

Cerebral Candida albicans Infection in Two dogs

Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2018. 46(Suppl 1): 332

Erick Platiní Ferreira de Souto, Maria Talita Soares Frade, Ismael Lira Borges, Leonardo Mendes Torres, Glaucia Denise Kommers, Glauco José Nogueira de Galiza, Franklin Riet-Correa & Antônio Flávio Medeiros Dantas

Link

Background: Candida spp. are pleomorphic fungi that are commensal inhabitants of the oral, gastrointestinal, upper respiratory and urogenital mucosa of mammals. Candida albicans is described as the most important species. This opportunistic pathogen may produce local or systemic infections in dogs. Local infections have been reported in several tissues and systemic infection is rare in dogs with few reports in the literature describing this presentation. The aim of the present study was to report two cases of cerebral Candida albicans infection in dogs in Brazil. 
Case: Two cases of cerebral Candida albicans infection in dogs that showed nervous signs are described. In both cases, the brain showed marked asymmetry of the telencephalic hemispheres with multifocal to coalescing yellowish or reddish areas and a partial loss of distinction between gray and white matter. In Case 1, the mediastinal, tracheobronchial and mesenteric lymph nodes, as well as the right kidney and adrenal gland, showed altered architecture due to numerous whitish gray nodules. Histological lesions were characterized by granulomatous (case 1) or pyogranulomatous (case 2) necrotizing meningoencephalitis with intralesional fungal organisms. In case 1, similar granulomatous infiltrate with intralesional fungal organisms was also seen in the lymph nodes, kidney and adrenal gland. In case 2, there was evidence consistent with an underlying infection of canine distemper virus. Were observed lymphoplasmocytic interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid rarefaction in lymph nodes, and viral intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in the epithelial cells of the stomach and vesical urothelium. In these two cases, the fungal organisms displayed three different morphological patterns. The first pattern was characterized by delicate tubular structures with thin parallel walls that were rarely septate and tended to undulate slightly, and measured approximately 4-20 µm (true hyphae). The second pattern was characterized by chains of elongated yeast, separated by constrictions at septal sites, and measured approximately 4-10 µm (pseudohyphae). The other morphological pattern, which was rarely observed, was characterized by round budding yeast cells that measured 3-4 µm in diameter and were often elongated by the germ tube. Sections were also stained using immunohistochemical antibodies against Candida albicans. The fungi revealed strong immunolabelling of the cytoplasm and wall for Candida albicans. 
Discussion: The diagnosis was based on the histomorphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the agent, which were consistent with Candida albicans. In these two cases, immunocompromise appeared to have been an important factor in the progression of the infection. In case 1, the dog was senile and treated with corticosteroids, conditions that could effectively limit innate, humoral and cell-mediated immune response to infection. In case 2, the dog displayed cachexia and was infected by canine distemper virus, evidenced by the presence of viral inclusion bodies. The inflammatory reactions in both cases were characteristic of fungal infections, but were distinct due to differences in the infectious process. In case 1, there was a subacute to chronic progression; while in case 2 neutrophilic infiltrate predominated, suggesting an acute progression. The different morphological patterns of the fungi suggested a pleomorphic fungi and the immunohistochemistry allowed us to identify the infectious agent. In conclusion, opportunistic infections caused by Candida albicans should be considered when diagnosing diseases that affect the central nervous system of dogs, particularly in immunosuppressed animals.

28 de jan. de 2019

Hérnia de disco tipo III em um cão

Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2018. 46(Suppl 1): 350

Link

Matheus Cézar Nerone & Gabriel Antonio Covino Diamante

Background: Acute and non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion, also called type III disc herniation, usually results from extreme exercises or traumatic episodes and is characterized by an acute extrusion without a compression of the spinal cord. Extrusion reaches the spinal cord at high speed, causing bruising in its parenchyma, and dissipates through the epidural space without causing compression. This report aims to describe the clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of a canine patient possibly affected by acute non-compressive extrusion of the intervertebral disc, as well as the evolution of the case with the proposed therapy. 
Case: A 7-year-old male Dachshund, weighing 9.4 kg, was presented with an acute loss of hind limb locomotion. At the neurological examination, paraplegia of acute onset with absence of deep pain, increased muscle tone, and increased patellar and withdrawal reflexes in hind limbs was found, as well as pain on epaxial palpation of the thoracolumbar spine. The perineal reflex was preserved, and the cutaneous trunci reflex was absent until the level of the second lumbar vertebra (L2). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an uncompressed heterogeneous hyper intense area in the thoracolumbar spinal cord on the intervertebral disc (IVD) between T13-L1. Based on the imaging findings, a presumptive diagnosis of an acute non-compressive disc extrusion was assumed, thus discarding the need for surgical decompression. The patient was hospitalized, initially being treated with dexamethasone, tramadol and dipyrone. After 24 hours of hospitalization, the dog recovered deep pain in the pelvic limbs and control over urination. The dog was then discharged from hospital and was prescribed prednisolone and absolute rest. After 25 days of clinical onset, there was a significant improvement in the patient neurological status, presenting only an ataxia of the pelvic limbs. Ten months after the initial care, the owner reported that the patient presented normal, without any gait abnormality or signs of pain, and was in a similar state to the one that preceded the clinical condition. 
Discussion: Among the consequences of disc degeneration, acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion is less frequent than Hansen types I and II. The patients generally affected are older dogs of chondrodystrophic breeds that present hyperacute neurological signs, which may vary from pain to loss of limb movement, depending on location and severity of the injury; signs which are very similar to those described for disc extrusion with compression. However, contrary to what is recommended in the treatment of thoracolumbar extrusion from grade III, decompression surgery is not required in non compressive extrusion, since in this case there is no spinal compression, only spinal concussion, regardless of the degree of neurological injury. The prognosis for dogs that retain the perception of deep pain is generally good. On the other hand, the average recovery rate for dogs that lost the ability to perceive deep pain is much lower. Patients with more severe neurological lesions are usually associated with a worse prognosis; however, the patient presented a positive evolution with conservative treatment, progressing from a paraplegia to an ambulatory paraparesis with a mild ataxia after 20 days of treatment, and showed complete recovery of ambulation after 10 months. Although the loss of deep nociception is a poor prognostic factor, the clinical outcome of this dog suggests that a good recovery may occur with conservative treatment in dogs with acute non-compressive disc extrusion, even in patients with severe neurological signs.

14 de nov. de 2018

[Aspectos patológicos e das imagens de ressonância magnética de um glioma misto em um cão: relato de caso]

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.70, n.5, p.1383-1387, 2018

T.M. Granato , L.P. Mesquita , R.C. Costa , J.P. Andrade Neto , P.C. Maiorka

LINK

RESUMO O objetivo deste relato foi descrever as características patológicas e das imagens de ressonância magnética de um glioma misto canino. Um cão de 12 anos de idade da raça Boxer foi submetido à necropsia. As imagens obtidas ante mortem por ressonância magnética foram analisadas, e nelas se observou uma lesão prosencefálica com contornos pouco definidos, sinal hiperintenso nas imagens ponderadas em T2, hipointenso nas imagens ponderadas em T1, e heterogeneamente hiperintenso em T2- FLAIR. Havia discreto realce desuniforme ao contraste, evidente desvio da linha média, edema perilesional moderado e marcada distorção do ventrículo lateral adjacente. O encéfalo foi avaliado macroscopicamente, microscopicamente e imuno-histoquimicamente. Macroscopicamente, havia uma massa pobremente demarcada, com áreas de hemorragia, nos lobos parietal e temporal esquerdos. Histologicamente, havia uma massa densamente celular, composta por duas populações de células neoplásicas distintas separadas geograficamente. A primeira população era composta por células pequenas e redondas, organizadas com aspecto de favo de mel. A segunda população era constituída por feixes entrelaçados de células neoplásicas fortemente imunomarcadas para a proteína fibrilar ácida glial (GFAP). O diagnóstico de glioma misto foi obtido com base nos achados imaginológicos e, principalmente, em suas características histológicas e imuno-histoquímicas. 


Magnetic resonance imaging and pathological features of a mixed glioma in a dog: case report 

ABSTRACT -  The aim of this report was to describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pathological features of a canine mixed glioma. A 12-year-old boxer male dog was presented for necropsy along with data from an MRI evaluation conducted ante-mortem. The images were examined and showed a poorly demarcated prosencephalic lesion, hyperintense on T2W images, hypointense on T1W images and heterogeneously hyperintense on T2W FLAIR images. There was mild nonuniform contrast enhancement, apparent midline shift, moderate perilesional edema and marked distortion of the adjacent lateral ventricle. The brain was evaluated macroscopically, microscopically and immunohistochemically. Grossly, there was a poorly demarcated soft mass, with areas of hemorrhage, within the left parietal and temporal lobes. Histologically, there was a densely cellular mass composed of two geographically distinct populations of neoplastic cells. The first population was composed of small and round cells organized in a honeycomb pattern. The second population constituted of intermingled streams and bundles of neoplastic cells that were strongly immunolabeled for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The diagnosis of a mixed glioma was based on MRI findings, and mainly on histological and immunohistochemical findings. 


9 de nov. de 2018

Uso de parafusos vertebrais para distração e estabilização espinhal em um cão com espondilomielopatia cervical disco-associada: relato de caso

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.70, n.5, p.1427-1432, 2018

P.V.T. Marinho , A.S. Macedo , C.R.A. Ferrigno , I.S. Dal-Bó , F. Paes , T. Bregadioli

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RESUMO Um cão, macho, adulto, Rotweiller de 10 anos de idade, foi atendido com histórico de claudicação do membro torácico esquerdo com evolução para fraqueza havia aproximadamente dois meses. Ao exame neurológico, observou-se ataxia proprioceptiva nos quatro membros e dor cervical moderada. Mediante ressonância magnética, espondilomielopatia cervical disco-associada com a característica estática da compressão C3-C4 foi diagnosticada. Realizou-se cirurgia descompressiva por meio de slot ventral e estabilização-distração com o uso de parafusos vertebrais e barras conectoras. O paciente apresentou evolução clínica favorável do quadro. A evolução foi progressiva e, no último retorno, 120 dias após a cirurgia, não apresentou nenhum déficit neurológico ou sinal de falha do implante nas imagens radiográficas; no entanto, não foi evidenciada fusão vertebral. Pelo conhecimento dos autores, esse é o primeiro relato de EMC disco-associada tratada por distração e estabilização com parafusos vertebrais (pediculares) em um cão. A fixação espinhal por meio do uso de parafusos vertebrais foi uma alternativa viável no caso apresentado.

ABSTRACT A 10-year-old male Rottweiler was evaluated for a 2-month history of recurrent forelimb weakness. Neurologic examination revealed proprioceptive ataxia, tetraparesis and moderate cervical pain. Diskassociated cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM) with static lesion at C3-4 was diagnosed based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The dog was surgically treated by a ventral slot procedure and distraction-stabilization of the vertebral bodies through insertion of vertebral screws with transverse connective bars. The patient had favorable clinical outcome. Neurologic assessment performed 120 days after surgery showed absence of neurologic defects. Radiographic assessment performed at the same time indicated adequate spinal cord decompression although vertebral fusion was not achieved. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of distraction-stabilization with vertebral (pedicle) screws to treat CSM in a dog. The treatment was well tolerated with no complications and excellent outcome and can be a viable option for this condition.

7 de nov. de 2018

Efeitos adversos da morfina, metadona e tramadol no pós-operatório de cães submetidos à cirurgia da coluna vertebral: 180 casos (2011-2016)

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 38(7):1431-1437, julho 2018

Angel Ripplinger, Graciane Aiello , Rafael O. Chaves , Amanda O. Andrades , Diego V. Beckmann , Dakir Polidoro , André V. Soares e Alexandre Mazzanti

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RESUMO: A dor pós-operatória em cães que são submetidos a cirurgias da coluna vertebral é considerada severa e seu manejo inadequado pode influenciar no tempo de recuperação  do paciente, na qualidade de vida e no resultado cirúrgico. Dentre os analgésicos indicados para uso no pós-operatório dessas cirurgias tem-se os opioides, que podem apresentar inúmeros efeitos adversos que requerem atenção. Devido à escassez de estudos clínicos acerca desse assunto em se tratando do pós-operatório de cães, objetivou-se com o presente estudo retrospectivo apresentar os efeitos adversos da morfina, metadona e tramadol utilizados no pós-operatório de cirurgias da coluna vertebral. Foram revisadas e avaliadas as fichas de 180 cães e anotadas as alterações observadas no pós-operatório e decorrentes do uso de opioides. Os principais efeitos adversos observados foram anorexia, hiporexia, vômito, salivação, vocalização, bradicardia, hipotermia, ofegação e sedação. Também foi observada persistência da dor em alguns cães mesmo com o uso de analgésicos. Houve diferença na ocorrência de anorexia nos cães tratados com morfina e nos tratados com metadona em relação aos tratados com tramadol. Ocorreu diferença também entre a observação de dor dos grupos morfina e tramadol. A associação de dipirona com morfina e com metadona não revelou diferença com relação à ocorrência de efeitos adversos, bem como a variação de doses. Conclui-se que a morfina, a metadona e o tramadol apresentam efeitos adversos quando empregados para tratamento da dor pós-operatória em cães submetidos à cirurgia da coluna vertebral; a anorexia, a hiporexia e o vômito foram os efeitos adversos frequentes com o uso de morfina e de metadona e, mesmo que o tramadol apresente menor ocorrência desses efeitos, seu uso, na dose estudada, pode não ser vantajoso quando se leva em consideração o grau de dor para cirurgias da coluna vertebral.

ABSTRACT: Postoperative pain in dogs undergone vertebral surgery is classified as severe and it’s important an adequate approach to it, because it can influence recovery time, quality of life and surgery outcome. Opioids are indicated for postoperative pain treatment in these surgeries. Opioids may have adverse effects that may require attention. There are few clinical studies that present the adverse effects of these analgesics in canine postoperative period. The aim of this retrospective study was to present the adverse effects of morphine, methadone and tramadol in canine vertebral surgery postoperative period. There were revised the postoperative records of 180 dogs and the changes resulted from the opioids use were noted. The adverse effects observed were anorexia, hyporexia, vomiting, vocalization, bradycardia, hypothermia, panting, sedation. Pain was also observed in some dogs. A significant difference was found in anorexia between dogs treated with morphine and tramadol and methadone and tramadol. Significant difference was also found in pain between dogs treated with morphine and tramadol. The association of metamizole and morphine or metamizole and methadone was not different in relation to the adverse effects. There was also no difference with the dosage variation and the adverse effects. In conclusion, morphine, methadone and tramadol have adverse effects when used for pain control in the postoperative period of dogs submitted to vertebral surgery. Anorexia, hypophagia and emesis were frequent the adverse effects observed with morphine and methadone and, despite tramadol presented less adverse effects, its use may be not beneficial in the studied doses when we consider the degree of pain, however more controlled studies with clinical situation are needed to confirm this.

5 de nov. de 2018

Fisioterapia na recuperação funcional e qualidade de vida de cães paraplégicos por doença do disco intervertebral (Hansen tipo I) toracolombar submetidos à cirurgia descompressiva

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 38(8):1656-1663, agosto 2018

Amanda O. Andrades , Angel Ripplinger , Dênis A. Ferrarin , Graciane Aiello , Luciana Schneider , Marcelo L. Schwab e Alexandre Mazzanti

LINK

RESUMO: Este estudo retrospectivo incluiu cães paraplégicos com ausência de percepção a dor profunda secundário a doença do disco intervertebral toracolombar e submetidos à cirurgia descompressiva. Teve como objetivo comparar a  recuperação funcional e a qualidade de vida (QV) quando submetidos a um protocolo em um centro especializado ou a domicílio realizado pelo tutor. Vinte e oito cães foram distribuídos no grupo A (GA) e submetidos ao protocolo domiciliar e 38 denominados grupo B (GB) em um centro especializado. Recuperaram a habilidade de caminhar 43% dos cães em uma média de 40 dias de pós-operatório (PO) no GA e 42% em uma média de 36 dias no GB. Em 53% dos casos (35/66) os cães permaneceram paraplégicos sem percepção a dor profunda ao final do período de 90 dias de PO. Vinte e cinco tutores do GA e 26 do GB responderam um questionário sobre a QV, com no mínimo seis meses de PO. A avaliação do tempo de sobrevida dos animais, realização de eutanásia e nota atribuída a QV demonstraram que os cães do GB provavelmente foram beneficiados pelo estreito acompanhamento e orientação aos tutores até 90 dias PO.

ABSTRACT: The retrospective study included paraplegic dogs affected by thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease with absence of deep pain perception and submitted to a decompressive surgical technique. The aim was to compare functional recovery and quality of life (QOL) of dogs that underwent a home physiotherapy protocol to dogs that were cared in a specialized center. Twenty-eight dogs were placed in group A (GA, home physiotherapy protocol) and other 38 patients were placed in group B (GB, physiotherapy protocol in a specialized center). Forty three percent (43%) of the patients recovered the ability to walk in an average of 40 postoperative (PO) days in GA and 42% in an average of 36 days in GB. In 53% of the cases (35/66) the dogs remained paraplegic without deep pain perception at the end of physiotherapeutic protocols. Twenty-five owners from GA and 26 from GB answered a questionnaire about QOL, with a minimum of six PO months. The evaluation of the animals survival time, euthanasia and the QOL score demonstrated that dogs that underwent a physiotherapeutic treatment in a specialized center probably were benefited by the close monitoring and orientation to owners until 90 days of PO.

1 de nov. de 2018

Avaliação laboratorial e nível sérico do fenobarbital administrado por diferentes vias em cão

Laboratory Evaluation and Serum Level of Phenobarbital Administered by Different Pathways in Dogs 

Gabriela Francisco Bittar , Gleice Laine de Souza , Gabriela Haro de Melo , Dayane Aparecida Francisco da Silva , José Sérgio Costa Júnior , Rogério Giuffrida & Rosa Maria Barilli Nogueira

Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2018. 46: 1587.

LINK

ABSTRACT

Background: Anticonvulsants are widely used in the treatment of small animals for the remission of isolated seizures and recurrent seizures in epilepsy, including tonic-clonic seizures and in status epileticus. Phenobarbital is the drug of choice for the management of epileptic seizures, it is considered very effective, safe, low cost and with few side effects. Several routes of administration may be used, with the oral, intravenous and intramuscular routes being the most common, with rectal and nasal routes being the least common. 
Materials, Methods & Results: Twenty mongrel dogs were used in the present study (aged 1 to 6-year-old, males and females, weighing 6.0 to 17.0 kg). The patients were previously evaluated via physical examination, temperature, respiratory and heart rate, laboratory tests (erythrogram and leukogram), and serum biochemistry by analyzing the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (FA), and gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT). Four experimental groups were established with five animals in each group: animals receiving intramuscular injections of phenobarbital (VIM), animals receiving nasal administration of phenobarbital (VN), animals receiving rectal administration of phenobarbital (VR), and animals receiving oral administration of phenobarbital (VO). Phenobarbital was administered every 12 h for 15 days. To determine the serum level of phenobarbital, 5 mL of jugular vein blood was collected in vacuum tubes for evaluation via hemogram. The serum level was determined after 15 days of continuous administration of phenobarbital, as stable phenobarbital serum levels can only be achieved from 10 to 15 days after the first administration. For the serum biochemistry evaluation, 10 mL of blood from the jugular vein was collected using vacuum syringes for assessing ALT, AST, GGT, and FA levels. Statistical analyses were performed with contrasted variation analysis using the Tukey method and paired t-test for comparison of time points. The level of significance was determined to be 5%. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) among drug administration routes, and among the levels of AST and AF enzymes after the first administration of phenobarbital via the nasal and intramuscular routes. Based on the results, it was concluded that hepatic alterations secondary to the use of phenobarbital for 15 days may occur with a low incidence. The phenobarbital serum concentration in dogs varied when administered via nasal, rectal, and intramuscular routes, but was stable when administered orally.
Discussion: The current results are consistent with those of previous studies, indicating that the chronic use of phenobarbital causes an increase in the serum levels of ALT and FA enzymes. It was found that phenobarbital serum levels varied greatly, particularly following nasal, rectal, and intramuscular administration. In the present study, serum phenobarbital levels were within the normal range when administered via the intramuscular, nasal, rectal, and oral routes. This result is inconsistent with that of previous studies where the serum levels were below the normal range following oral administration of phenobarbital. The serum concentration, rather than clinical criteria, should be used as a guide for treatment modification, as the distribution of this drug varies greatly among animals.

26 de out. de 2018

Post mortem evaluation of spinal cord and protruded intervertebral discs in dogs without neurological abnormalities

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 38(9):1793-1799, setembro 2018

Carolina C. Zani , Paulo V.T. Marinho , Gabriel A.C. Diamante , Felipe A.R. Sueiro and Mônica V. Bahr Arias

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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to verify the presence of protrusion of the intervertebral disc (IVD) causing compression of the spinal cord and/or roots of cauda equina in 30 dogs above seven years of age with no evidence of previous neurological abnormalities. After the occurrence of death or euthanasia, a laminectomy was performed from C2 to the sacral vertebra to verify the presence of IVD protrusions. The protruded IVD were macroscopically graded according to the Thompson scale, and the corresponding spinal cord segment was histologically analyzed for nervous tissue compression. Of the 30 dogs, twelve (40%) presented disc protrusion, and of these 12 dogs, seven (58%) presented more than one protruded disc. Disc protrusion was observed in 3.2% (25/780) of all IVD evaluated. Of the six chondrodystrophic dogs, five (83%) presented disc protrusion. Of the 24 nonchondrodystrophic dogs, seven (29%) presented IVD protrusion. The site that showed the highest frequency of protrusion was L4-L5 (6/25) followed by the L6-L7 region (3/25) and C6-C7 (3/25). Only two of the medullary segments evaluated showed histological changes, with presence of focal lymphocytic infiltration and multifocal mild hemorrhage in the gray matter. Under the conditions of this study, 40% of dogs older than seven years old showed IVD protrusions without showing neurological signs, with no abnormality of the nervous tissue in 92% of the evaluated segments. Thus, the protrusion of the IVD in some dogs, can only be a finding of no clinical relevance.

 Avaliação post mortem da medula espinhal e de discos intervertebrais protrusos em cães sem alterações neurológicas

RESUMO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a presença de protrusão do disco intervertebral (DIV) causando compressão da medula espinhal e/ou raízes da cauda equina em cadáveres de cães, sem histórico de alterações neurológicas. Para isso, após a ocorrência de óbito ou realização de eutanásia em 30 cães com mais de sete anos de idade, sem histórico de alterações neurológicas, foi realizada a laminectomia entre C2 até a vértebra sacral para verificar a presença de protrusões do DIV. Os DIV protrusos foram graduados macroscopicamente quanto à degeneração segundo a escala de Thompson, e o segmentos medular correspondente à localização da compressão foi analisado microscopicamente em busca de lesões compressivas ao tecido nervoso. Quarenta por cento dos cães (12/30) apresentaram protrusão do DIV, e destes, 58% (7/12) apresentavam mais de um DIV protruso. A protrusão estava presente em 3,2% (25/780) de todos os DIV avaliados. Cães de raças condrodistróficas apresentaram protrusões em 83% dos casos (5/6) e raças não condrodistróficas em 29% (7/24). O local que apresentou maior frequência de protrusão foi L4-L5 (6/25), seguido da região L6-L7 (3/25) e C6-C7 (3/25). Apenas dois segmentos medulares avaliados na histopatologia apresentaram alterações, com presença de infiltrado linfoplasmocitário focal e hemorragia discreta multifocal na substância cinzenta. Nas condições do presente estudo, 40% dos cães com mais de sete anos de idade apresentaram protrusões do DIV sem que houvesse sinais neurológicos, com normalidade do tecido nervoso em 92% dos segmentos avaliados. Assim, a protrusão do DIV, em alguns cães, pode ser apenas um achado sem relevância clínica

23 de out. de 2018

Análise do líquido cérebro-espinhal de três doenças do sistema nervoso central de cães

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 38(8):1649-1655, agosto 2018

LInk

Dakir N. Polidoro , Rosmarini P. Santos, Graciane Aiello , Rafael O. Chaves , Angel Ripplinger , Mathias R. Wrzesinski , Marcelo L. Schwab e Alexandre Mazzanti

RESUMO:
Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo do líquido cérebro-espinhal de cães (LCE), atendidos pelo Serviço de Neurologia do Hospital Veterinário da Instituição, de 2004 a 2015, com o objetivo de analisar os resultados de cães com sinais neurológicos, comparar as alterações encontradas em dois locais de colheita no mesmo paciente e verificar se esse exame auxiliou o clínico em reforçar a suspeita clínica das principais doenças do sistema nervoso central. A pleocitose linfocítica esteve presente em 78,3% (29/37) das amostras de cães com cinomose e em 23,2% (10/43) de cães com DDIV.  Houve dissociação albuminocitológica (DAC) em 73% (19/26) das amostras de cães com tumores IC e em 64,3% (9/14) de cães com tumores envolvendo a ME. Em cães com DDIV, houve significância estatística entre o grau de disfunção neurológica e o total de células nucleadas (TCN) e total de proteínas (TP). Em 29 cães, houve a colheita do LCE da cisterna magna e da cisterna lombar e em 12 (41,4%) os resultados foram diferentes entre as duas amostras colhidas do mesmo cão, onde dois (6,9%) apresentaram alteração na amostra colhida cranial à lesão. Pode-se concluir que a pleocitose linfocítica foi a principal alteração encontrada no LCE de cães com cinomose e DDIV e DAC nas neoplasias, IC e ME, cães acometidos pela DDIV apresentaram sinais neurológicos mais severos conforme o TCN e o TP aumentaram e o LCE sofreu alteração, mesmo colhido cranial ao local da lesão e auxiliou o clínico em reforçar a suspeita clínica, mas não confirmou, as principais doenças neurológicas em cães.

Analysis of cerebral-spinal fluid of tree central nervous system diseases of dogs

ABSTRACT: A retrospective study including the analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of dogs neurologically affected was conducted by the Neurology Service of the Veterinary Hospital at the Institution, between 2004 and 2015. The aim of this study was to analyze the results of the CSF of dogs with neurological signs, and compare the changes in the CSF in two sampling sites in the same patient and see if this test helped the clinician to strengthen clinical suspicion of the major diseases of the central nervous system.  Lymphocytic pleocytosis was present in 78.3% (29/37) of samples from dogs with distemper and in 23.2% (10/43) of samples from dogs with IVDD. The albumin cytologic dissociation (ACD) was found in 73% (19/26) of samples from dogs with IC tumors and in 64.3% (9/14) from dogs with tumors involving the SC. For dogs with IVDD, there was statistical significance  between the degree of neurological dysfunction and the total nucleated cells (TNC) and total protein (TP). In 29 dogs, CSF was collected from the cistern magna and the lumbar and in 12 (41.4%) the results were different between the samples of the same dog, where two cases (6,9%) showed alterations in the sample collected cranial to the injury. It can be concluded that the lymphocytic pleocytosis was the main alteration found in the CSF of dogs with distemper and IVDD and ACD in tumors. Dogs affected by IVDD had more severe neurological signs as TNC and TP increased and the CSF was altered even collected cranial to the lesion site and helped the clinician to strengthen the clinical suspicion, but not confirm, the major neurological diseases in dogs.

27 de ago. de 2018

Kernicterus in an Adult Dog

Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2018. 46(Suppl 1): 250.

LINK

Luciana Sonne , Djeison Lutier Raymundo , Bianca Santana de Cecco , Adriana da Silva Santos , Caroline Argenta Pescador , Eduardo Conceição de Oliveira1 & David Driemeier

ABSTRACT
Background: Kernicterus or bilirubin encephalopathy is a condition rarely observed in animal characterized by a yellowish discoloration of the central nervous system. It is a potentially fatal condition due to bilirubin neurotoxic effects caused by the increase of non-conjugated bilirubin pigment, which passes blood brain barrier and has been attributed to an imbalance between albumin and bilirubin levels. Intracellular bilirubin is toxic for cells and can cause decrease in protein synthesis, specially albumin, depression of cell respiration and cellular death. This paper describes kernicterus in a 2-year-old Great Dane female dog. 
Case: Clinically, the animal showed apathy, lethargy, weight loss and jaundice, which progressed to vomiting and neurological signs characterized by loss of consciousness and eventually coma. Blood parameters were within normal range, except for high levels of alanine aminotransferase (523 U/L), suggesting a liver lesion. The animal was submitted to euthanasia due to the poor prognosis, and at post-mortem examination it showed dehydration and severe jaundice, especially oral, vaginal and ocular mucosas, subcutaneous tissue and blood vessels intima surface. The liver had an accentuated lobular pattern, and the stomach mucosa was reddened. Multiple petechiae were observed in the epicardium, as well as icterus in the blood vessels of the heart. Furthermore, the brain and cerebellum cortex, thalamic region and nuclei region of brainstem showed extensive icteric areas. Microscopically, the liver presented a mononuclear portal hepatitis, centrilobular necrosis and presence of yellowish pigments. The brain had neuronal necrosis, mild vacuolization of the white matter, perineuronal edema and Alzheimer type II astrocytes, while cerebellum showed Purkinje cells necrosis. Hepatic cooper measurement was within range values, and direct imunofluorescence for the detection of Leptospira sp. was negative. 
Discussion: Kernicterus pathogenesis has been extensively studied, as the condition is commonly seen in neonatal humans. Diagnosis is based on gross and microscopic lesions in brain, which are consistent with bilirubin encephalopathy caused by the necrosis and degeneration of neurons. This condition is related to cases of intense hyperbilirubinemia, which exceeds the albumin binding capacity and, therefore, the excess of unconjugated bilirubin that can pass through the blood brain barrier. Liver disease causes deficient production of protein, especially albumin, decreasing the potential binding capacity to bilirubin, and consequently causing hyperbilirubinemia. In this case, the previously detected hepatic lesion suggested by liver enzymes increased, probably led to protein production dysfunction, causing hypoalbuminemia and hyperbilirubinemia. Unfortunately, albumin and bilirubin seric levels could not be measured. Decrease in albumin production along with the excess of unconjugated bilirubin caused the jaundice, and in cases like this one described, the blood brain barrier is compromised and the kernicterus occurs. Unconjugated bilirubin has negative effect in the glutamate uptake causing extracellular accumulation of it, which is consequently neurotoxic, causing necrosis and degeneration leading to a characteristic encephalopathy in animals with kernicterus. In this report, it was not possible to determine the primary hepatic disease, however this caused clinical neurotoxic disease, known as bilirubin encephalopathy.

24 de ago. de 2018

Surgical Excision of an Osteochondroma in a Nerve Root of the Cauda Equina of a Dog

Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2018. 46(Suppl 1): 327

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Juliana Campos de Barros , Larissa Garbelini Valentim , Raira Costa Dias , Alfredo Hajime Tanaka Pereira , Giovana Wingeter Di Santis & Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias

ABSTRACT 

Background: Spinal neoplasms are classified into extradural, intradural/extramedullary or intramedullary. Intradural/extramedullary tumors include meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors, which arise from meninges or peripheral nerves around the spinal cord. Clinical signs are related to dysfunction of the involved nerve and include pain, nerve root signature and atrophy. Osteochondromas are benign tumors located within the bone, on its surface or in extra-osseous regions, when they are classified as soft tissue osteochondoma. The aim of this study is to describe a case of an osteochondroma in a nervous root of the cauda equina in a dog, whose surgical resection allowed the resolution of the clinical signs.
Case: A 12-year-old, male, Labrador Retriever dog, was presented with a 40-day history of progressive, painful, pelvic limb paresis, with no improvement when treated with analgesics and acupuncture. Neurological abnormalities included paraparesis, sometimes worse in the left pelvic limb, that was carried flexed at the level of the stifle, hindlimb atrophy, decreased interdigital reflexes and pain in the lumbar spinal region, mainly over L6 vertebra. Results of blood count and serum biochemical analysis were unremarkable. Computed tomography (CT) of the lumbosacral area was performed and the evaluation of images in transverse and reconstructed dorsal and sagittal planes allowed the visualization of a hyperattenuating and calcified round structure with 8 mm x 6 mm, in the left side of vertebral canal, at the level of caudal epiphysis of L6. Lumbosacral (L7-S1) CT abnormalities, as subchondral sclerosis, mild disc margin bulging, spondylosis deformans and foraminal proliferation were also observed but were considered clinically insignificant. Then, a dorsal L6 laminectomy was performed and after opening of the vertebral canal it was observed the presence of an ovoid mass, in the left side of the medullary cone, measuring approximately 0.9 cm in length, originating from a sacral nerve root. This structure was excised and submitted to histopathological evaluation. The dog improved after surgery without any complications, and neurological functions were gradually recovered. The histopathology of the mass was confirmed as an osteochondroma. Discussion: The history and neurologic examination findings as well the improvement after surgery were compatible with the lesion visualized by TC in L6, rather than the degenerative changes in L7-S1. Regarding the position of the mass, the main differential would be nerve sheath tumor, one of the most common types of primary neoplasia of the peripheral nervous system, however in a CT study in dogs with brachial plexus and nerve roots neoplasms, calcification of the tumor was not observed. Most of benign cartilaginous tumors of soft tissue are chondromas/osteochondromas, and this lesion should not be confused with multiple osteochondroma or multiple cartilaginous exostoses, which have been reported as multifocal, proliferative lesions involving the surface of ribs, vertebrae and pelvis of young dogs. If this lesion is unique, it is called osteochondroma. There are two reports of chondromas into the first lumbar vertebrae of dogs, with adherence to the floor of the vertebral canal and one report of an osteochondroma originated from the left pedicle of T11 in a cat. Radiculopathy and myelopathy caused by osteochondromas inside the spine are rare in humans and description of this tumor arising from nerve roots were not found in the veterinary literature. Probably the origin of the mass was metaplasia of the meninges surrounding the nervous root. In conclusion, neurological examination, CT and surgical exploration allowed the diagnosis and removal of a soft tissue osteochondroma, a rare benign tumor, with good patient recovery

21 de ago. de 2018

Doenças do sistema nervoso central em cães

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 38(5):935-948, maio 2018

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Maria T.S. Frade, Jefferson S. Ferreira , Maria J.R. Nascimento , Vitória V.F. Aquino , Isabel L. Macêdo , Rosileide S. Carneiro , Almir P. Souza e Antônio F.M. Dantas


RESUMO: São descritas doenças do sistema nervoso central (SNC) em cães diagnosticadas no sertão da Paraíba. Os registros de necropsia de 1.205 cães foram revisados. Em 354 casos (29,38%) foram registrados história clínica de alterações do sistema nervoso. Duzentos e noventa e seis casos tiveram diagnóstico definitivo e 58 foram inconclusivos. As doenças infecciosas foram observadas em 59,60% (211/354) de casos que representam a principal causa de distúrbios neurológicos; 53% dos casos (186/354) foram representadas por doenças virais; 3,11% (11/354) foram de etiologia parasitária, 2,54% (9/354) foram causadas por bactérias e 1,41% (5/354) por fungos. Os agentes físicos representaram a segunda causa mais importante de transtornos do SNC com 9,89% (35/354) e os tumores a terceira causa com 5,93% (21/354). Outras alterações pouco frequentes foram alterações metabólicas secundárias a insuficiência hepática ou renal, representando 2,54% (9/354). Casos raros de hidrocefalia congênita foram observados, 1,41% (5/354). Os casos de manifestações neurológicas associadas a alterações vasculares, degenerativas e inflamatórias não infecciosas, muitas das quais uma causa específica não foi estabelecida representaram 4,24% (15/354); Estavam dentro das seguintes categorias de doenças: Infartos isquêmicos e hemorrágicos (6/15), necrose vascular fibrinoide (5/15), doença do disco intervertebral (2/15), meningoencefalite granulomatosa (1/15) e granuloma de colesterol (1/15). Os distúrbios do sistema nervoso central representam uma importante causa de morte ou eutanásia em cães na região semiárida da Paraíba. Os sinais clínicos variaram de acordo com o agente envolvido, localização e distribuição das lesões. O conhecimento dos principais agentes que pode afetar o SNC canino é importante ao fazer uma lista de diagnóstico diferencial.

17 de ago. de 2018

Estabilização vertebral segmentar modificada no tratamento de trauma medular em ouriço-cacheiro (Coendou spinosus): relato de caso

Arq. Bras. Med.Vet. Zootec., v.70, n.4, p.1221-1226, 2018

LINK

N.J. Tagliari , B.Z. Silva , E.A.R. Santos , M.E. Baier , P.C.S. Gonzalez , M.M. Alievi

RESUMO: Uma fêmea, adulta, de ouriço-cacheiro (Coendou spinosus, F. Cuvier, 1823), foi atendida com histórico de trauma medular. No exame neurológico, foi constatada paraplegia com nocicepção preservada e sinais compatíveis com choque espinhal. Exame radiográfico e mielografia apontaram presença de fratura e luxação vertebral torácica entre T10-11. O paciente foi submetido à técnica de estabilização vertebral segmentar modificada, com pinos de Steinmann e fios de cerclagem. A técnica utilizada mostrou-se eficaz na estabilização da fratura/luxação vertebral e na recuperação dos sinais neurológicos. O paciente apresentou recuperação progressiva da deambulação. Para o conhecimento dos autores, este é o primeiro relato utilizando estabilização vertebral segmentar modificada para o tratamento de fratura/luxação vertebral torácica em Coendou spinosus.

13 de ago. de 2018

Modalidades fisioterapêuticas na reabilitação de cães com doença do disco intervertebral toracolombar submetidos à cirurgia descompressiva: 30 casos (2008-2016)

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.70, n.4, p.1089-1098, 2018

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A.O. Andrades, G. Aiello , A.C.T. Colvero , D.A. Ferrarin , L. Schneider , A. Ripplinger1 , M.L. Schwab , A. Mazzanti

Este estudo retrospectivo teve como objetivo demonstrar as modalidades fisioterapêuticas empregadas no tratamento de cães com doença do disco intervertebral (DDIV) toracolombar após descompressão cirúrgica da medula espinhal, bem como relatar os fatores que determinaram as alterações das modalidades. Foram incluídos 30 cães que apresentavam sinais neurológicos desde paraparesia ambulatória a paraplegia com dor profunda na primeira sessão de fisioterapia. As modalidades utilizadas nos protocolos de todos os pacientes foram a crioterapia, massagem, alongamento passivo, movimentação passiva articular, estímulo do reflexo flexor e estimulação elétrica neuromuscular. A inclusão ou exclusão de exercícios terapêuticos, como a tipoia corporal, a plataforma proprioceptiva circular, a natação, a hidroesteira, os obstáculos e a caminhada em colchão, foi de acordo com a evolução clínica e a adaptação de cada paciente. Oitenta por cento (80%) dos cães alteraram o grau de disfunção neurológica antes de iniciar a fisioterapia e 93% retornaram à habilidade de caminhar (paraparesia ambulatória) ao final da fisioterapia. O número de sessões e o tempo de recuperação foram maiores quanto pior foi o grau de lesão do paciente.



8 de ago. de 2018

Complicações observadas em cães e gatos com doenças neurológicas

Complications observed in dogs and cats with neurological diseases

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 38(6):1159-1171, junho 2018

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Marina B. Santoro e Mônica V. Bahr Arias

RESUMO: Cães e gatos com problemas neurológicos estão sujeitos a várias sequelas e complicações, em decorrência das deficiências motoras, sensoriais e viscerais. Algumas complicações estão relacionadas a maior mortalidade, principalmente aquelas relacionadas ao trauma vertebromedular. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar nessas espécies a frequência do aparecimento de complicações, a epidemiologia, localização da lesão e etiologia, avaliando ainda a evolução e o tempo de sobrevida. Foram acompanhados 100 cães e gatos com doenças neurológicas trazidos para atendimento no Serviço de Neurologia do Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Estadual de Londrina. Observou-se que 91% dos animais desenvolveram complicações, sendo que as mais frequentes foram atrofia muscular (n=32), retenção urinária (n=24), incontinência urinária (n=24), incontinência fecal (n=17) e feridas de decúbito (n=16). O principal local de lesão associado ao aparecimento das complicações foi medula espinhal (91,3%) e a principal etiologia foi o trauma vertebromedular (37,3%). O tempo mediano e médio de vida estimado foram, respectivamente, dois e sete meses sendo que as principais causas de morte ou eutanásia estavam relacionadas ao trauma vertebromedular, trauma cranioencefálico ou doença inflamatória/infecciosa. O tempo de vida estimado foi menor para animais mais velhos e mais pesados. Embora o índice de sobrevivência dos animais com complicações tenha sido alto, muitos permaneceram com sequelas, indicando que a sobrevivência não significou capacidade funcional normal. Cães e gatos com problemas neurológicos requerem alto grau de atenção do veterinário e de seus tutores, sendo fundamental a orientação a respeito da real expectativa de recuperação e das dificuldades de manejo que poderão ser encontradas no curso da doença.

ABSTRACT:  Dogs and cats with neurological diseases can show several sequelae and complications asa result of motor, sensory and visceral deficiencies. Some complications are an important cause of mortality, mainly complications related to spinal cord injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate in 100 dogs and cats brought to the Neurology Service of Veterinary Hospital from Universidade Estadual de Londrina the frequency of complications, epidemiology, lesion localization and etiology, still assessing the evolution and survival time. It was observed that 91% of the animals developed complications. The most frequent were muscular atrophy (n=32), urinary retention (n=24), urinary incontinence (n=24), fecal incontinence (n=17) and pressure sores (n=16). The main site of injury associated with the onset of complications was spinal cord (91%) and the main cause was the spinal cord trauma (37.3%). The median survival time of animals with complications was two months and the mean was seven months. The main causes of death or euthanasia were related do spinal cord trauma, traumatic brain injury or inflammatory/infectious disease. The estimated lifetime was lower for older and heavier animals. Although the survival rate of animals with complications was high, most of them remained with sequelae, indicating that survival does not mean normal functional capacity. Dogs and cats with neurological problems require a high degree of attention of the veterinarian and their guardians, and guidelines regarding the real expectation of recovery and management difficulties that may be encountered in the course of the disease are essential.

6 de ago. de 2018

SIMPÓSIOS INTERNACIONAIS DA ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NEUROLOGIA VETERINÁRIA

VOCÊ NÃO PODE PERDER ESSE INCRÍVEL ENCONTRO DA NEUROLOGIA VETERINÁRIA NO BRASIL!!!!

INFORMAÇÕES E INSCRIÇÕES - CLIQUE AQUI


COM A PARTICIPAÇÃO DOS PROFESSORES


Curtis W. DeweyProfessor Associado e Chefe da Seção de Neurologia/Neurocirurgia da Cornell University; Christine Thomson, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Department of Veterinary Medicine e  Ronaldo Casimiro da Costa, autores dos livros abaixo:




30 de jul. de 2018

Dantrolene e células-tronco mesenquimais promovem melhora funcional em ratos Wistar com trauma espinhal agudo

Dantrolene and mesenchymal stem cells promote functional improvement in Wistar rats with spinal cord injury.

Bruno B.J. Torres, Bernardo C. Martins , Carla Maria O. Silva , Mário Sérgio L. Lavor , Sandro Coelho , Gabriela F. Siano e Eliane G. Melo


LINK

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 38(4):703-709, abril 2018

RESUMO: Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do dantrolene (DAN) e das células-tronco mesenquimais (CTM) no trauma espinhal agudo (TEA). Sessenta ratos Wistar foram divididos nos grupos CTM, DAN + CTM, DAN, trauma e placebo (TP) e sem trauma e placebo (STP). Realizou-se laminectomia de T12 em todos os grupos, seguida de TEA contusivo ∕ compressivo, com exceção do grupo STP. Uma hora depois, os grupos DAN + CTM e DAN receberam 10mg/kg de DAN. Após sete dias os grupos CTM e DAN + CTM receberam 1x106 células, por via intravenosa. Testes comportamentais foram realizados para avaliar a recuperação funcional durante 28 dias. Os animais traumatizados apresentaram paraplegia. Houve melhora funcional significativa nos grupos tratados com CTM, DAN ou associação DAN + CTM em comparação ao grupo TP. Conclui-se que o DAN e as CTM para tratamento de TEA em ratos apresentam efeitos neuroprotetores e promovem melhora neurológica funcional.

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dantrolene (DAN) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Sixty Wistar rats were divided into groups MSCs, MSCs + DAN, DAN, trauma and placebo (TP) and no trauma and placebo (STP). Laminectomy was performed at T12 level in all animals, followed by a weight-drop model of SCI, except for the STP group. An hour later, the MSCs + DAN and DAN groups received 10mg/kg of DAN. After seven days, the MSCs and MSCs + DAN groups received 1x106 cells intravenously. Behavioral tests were performed to assess functional recovery for 28 days. Traumatized animals showed paraplegia. There was a significant improvement in groups MSCs, DAN and MSCs + DAN compared to TP. It was concluded that DAN and MSCs for the treatment of SCI in rats have neuroprotection effect and promote functional neurological improvement.