4 de fev de 2019

Cerebral Candida albicans Infection in Two dogs

Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2018. 46(Suppl 1): 332

Erick Platiní Ferreira de Souto, Maria Talita Soares Frade, Ismael Lira Borges, Leonardo Mendes Torres, Glaucia Denise Kommers, Glauco José Nogueira de Galiza, Franklin Riet-Correa & Antônio Flávio Medeiros Dantas


Background: Candida spp. are pleomorphic fungi that are commensal inhabitants of the oral, gastrointestinal, upper respiratory and urogenital mucosa of mammals. Candida albicans is described as the most important species. This opportunistic pathogen may produce local or systemic infections in dogs. Local infections have been reported in several tissues and systemic infection is rare in dogs with few reports in the literature describing this presentation. The aim of the present study was to report two cases of cerebral Candida albicans infection in dogs in Brazil. 
Case: Two cases of cerebral Candida albicans infection in dogs that showed nervous signs are described. In both cases, the brain showed marked asymmetry of the telencephalic hemispheres with multifocal to coalescing yellowish or reddish areas and a partial loss of distinction between gray and white matter. In Case 1, the mediastinal, tracheobronchial and mesenteric lymph nodes, as well as the right kidney and adrenal gland, showed altered architecture due to numerous whitish gray nodules. Histological lesions were characterized by granulomatous (case 1) or pyogranulomatous (case 2) necrotizing meningoencephalitis with intralesional fungal organisms. In case 1, similar granulomatous infiltrate with intralesional fungal organisms was also seen in the lymph nodes, kidney and adrenal gland. In case 2, there was evidence consistent with an underlying infection of canine distemper virus. Were observed lymphoplasmocytic interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid rarefaction in lymph nodes, and viral intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in the epithelial cells of the stomach and vesical urothelium. In these two cases, the fungal organisms displayed three different morphological patterns. The first pattern was characterized by delicate tubular structures with thin parallel walls that were rarely septate and tended to undulate slightly, and measured approximately 4-20 µm (true hyphae). The second pattern was characterized by chains of elongated yeast, separated by constrictions at septal sites, and measured approximately 4-10 µm (pseudohyphae). The other morphological pattern, which was rarely observed, was characterized by round budding yeast cells that measured 3-4 µm in diameter and were often elongated by the germ tube. Sections were also stained using immunohistochemical antibodies against Candida albicans. The fungi revealed strong immunolabelling of the cytoplasm and wall for Candida albicans. 
Discussion: The diagnosis was based on the histomorphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the agent, which were consistent with Candida albicans. In these two cases, immunocompromise appeared to have been an important factor in the progression of the infection. In case 1, the dog was senile and treated with corticosteroids, conditions that could effectively limit innate, humoral and cell-mediated immune response to infection. In case 2, the dog displayed cachexia and was infected by canine distemper virus, evidenced by the presence of viral inclusion bodies. The inflammatory reactions in both cases were characteristic of fungal infections, but were distinct due to differences in the infectious process. In case 1, there was a subacute to chronic progression; while in case 2 neutrophilic infiltrate predominated, suggesting an acute progression. The different morphological patterns of the fungi suggested a pleomorphic fungi and the immunohistochemistry allowed us to identify the infectious agent. In conclusion, opportunistic infections caused by Candida albicans should be considered when diagnosing diseases that affect the central nervous system of dogs, particularly in immunosuppressed animals.

28 de jan de 2019

Hérnia de disco tipo III em um cão

Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2018. 46(Suppl 1): 350


Matheus Cézar Nerone & Gabriel Antonio Covino Diamante

Background: Acute and non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion, also called type III disc herniation, usually results from extreme exercises or traumatic episodes and is characterized by an acute extrusion without a compression of the spinal cord. Extrusion reaches the spinal cord at high speed, causing bruising in its parenchyma, and dissipates through the epidural space without causing compression. This report aims to describe the clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of a canine patient possibly affected by acute non-compressive extrusion of the intervertebral disc, as well as the evolution of the case with the proposed therapy. 
Case: A 7-year-old male Dachshund, weighing 9.4 kg, was presented with an acute loss of hind limb locomotion. At the neurological examination, paraplegia of acute onset with absence of deep pain, increased muscle tone, and increased patellar and withdrawal reflexes in hind limbs was found, as well as pain on epaxial palpation of the thoracolumbar spine. The perineal reflex was preserved, and the cutaneous trunci reflex was absent until the level of the second lumbar vertebra (L2). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an uncompressed heterogeneous hyper intense area in the thoracolumbar spinal cord on the intervertebral disc (IVD) between T13-L1. Based on the imaging findings, a presumptive diagnosis of an acute non-compressive disc extrusion was assumed, thus discarding the need for surgical decompression. The patient was hospitalized, initially being treated with dexamethasone, tramadol and dipyrone. After 24 hours of hospitalization, the dog recovered deep pain in the pelvic limbs and control over urination. The dog was then discharged from hospital and was prescribed prednisolone and absolute rest. After 25 days of clinical onset, there was a significant improvement in the patient neurological status, presenting only an ataxia of the pelvic limbs. Ten months after the initial care, the owner reported that the patient presented normal, without any gait abnormality or signs of pain, and was in a similar state to the one that preceded the clinical condition. 
Discussion: Among the consequences of disc degeneration, acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion is less frequent than Hansen types I and II. The patients generally affected are older dogs of chondrodystrophic breeds that present hyperacute neurological signs, which may vary from pain to loss of limb movement, depending on location and severity of the injury; signs which are very similar to those described for disc extrusion with compression. However, contrary to what is recommended in the treatment of thoracolumbar extrusion from grade III, decompression surgery is not required in non compressive extrusion, since in this case there is no spinal compression, only spinal concussion, regardless of the degree of neurological injury. The prognosis for dogs that retain the perception of deep pain is generally good. On the other hand, the average recovery rate for dogs that lost the ability to perceive deep pain is much lower. Patients with more severe neurological lesions are usually associated with a worse prognosis; however, the patient presented a positive evolution with conservative treatment, progressing from a paraplegia to an ambulatory paraparesis with a mild ataxia after 20 days of treatment, and showed complete recovery of ambulation after 10 months. Although the loss of deep nociception is a poor prognostic factor, the clinical outcome of this dog suggests that a good recovery may occur with conservative treatment in dogs with acute non-compressive disc extrusion, even in patients with severe neurological signs.

14 de nov de 2018

[Aspectos patológicos e das imagens de ressonância magnética de um glioma misto em um cão: relato de caso]

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.70, n.5, p.1383-1387, 2018

T.M. Granato , L.P. Mesquita , R.C. Costa , J.P. Andrade Neto , P.C. Maiorka


RESUMO O objetivo deste relato foi descrever as características patológicas e das imagens de ressonância magnética de um glioma misto canino. Um cão de 12 anos de idade da raça Boxer foi submetido à necropsia. As imagens obtidas ante mortem por ressonância magnética foram analisadas, e nelas se observou uma lesão prosencefálica com contornos pouco definidos, sinal hiperintenso nas imagens ponderadas em T2, hipointenso nas imagens ponderadas em T1, e heterogeneamente hiperintenso em T2- FLAIR. Havia discreto realce desuniforme ao contraste, evidente desvio da linha média, edema perilesional moderado e marcada distorção do ventrículo lateral adjacente. O encéfalo foi avaliado macroscopicamente, microscopicamente e imuno-histoquimicamente. Macroscopicamente, havia uma massa pobremente demarcada, com áreas de hemorragia, nos lobos parietal e temporal esquerdos. Histologicamente, havia uma massa densamente celular, composta por duas populações de células neoplásicas distintas separadas geograficamente. A primeira população era composta por células pequenas e redondas, organizadas com aspecto de favo de mel. A segunda população era constituída por feixes entrelaçados de células neoplásicas fortemente imunomarcadas para a proteína fibrilar ácida glial (GFAP). O diagnóstico de glioma misto foi obtido com base nos achados imaginológicos e, principalmente, em suas características histológicas e imuno-histoquímicas. 

Magnetic resonance imaging and pathological features of a mixed glioma in a dog: case report 

ABSTRACT -  The aim of this report was to describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pathological features of a canine mixed glioma. A 12-year-old boxer male dog was presented for necropsy along with data from an MRI evaluation conducted ante-mortem. The images were examined and showed a poorly demarcated prosencephalic lesion, hyperintense on T2W images, hypointense on T1W images and heterogeneously hyperintense on T2W FLAIR images. There was mild nonuniform contrast enhancement, apparent midline shift, moderate perilesional edema and marked distortion of the adjacent lateral ventricle. The brain was evaluated macroscopically, microscopically and immunohistochemically. Grossly, there was a poorly demarcated soft mass, with areas of hemorrhage, within the left parietal and temporal lobes. Histologically, there was a densely cellular mass composed of two geographically distinct populations of neoplastic cells. The first population was composed of small and round cells organized in a honeycomb pattern. The second population constituted of intermingled streams and bundles of neoplastic cells that were strongly immunolabeled for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The diagnosis of a mixed glioma was based on MRI findings, and mainly on histological and immunohistochemical findings. 

9 de nov de 2018

Uso de parafusos vertebrais para distração e estabilização espinhal em um cão com espondilomielopatia cervical disco-associada: relato de caso

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.70, n.5, p.1427-1432, 2018

P.V.T. Marinho , A.S. Macedo , C.R.A. Ferrigno , I.S. Dal-Bó , F. Paes , T. Bregadioli


RESUMO Um cão, macho, adulto, Rotweiller de 10 anos de idade, foi atendido com histórico de claudicação do membro torácico esquerdo com evolução para fraqueza havia aproximadamente dois meses. Ao exame neurológico, observou-se ataxia proprioceptiva nos quatro membros e dor cervical moderada. Mediante ressonância magnética, espondilomielopatia cervical disco-associada com a característica estática da compressão C3-C4 foi diagnosticada. Realizou-se cirurgia descompressiva por meio de slot ventral e estabilização-distração com o uso de parafusos vertebrais e barras conectoras. O paciente apresentou evolução clínica favorável do quadro. A evolução foi progressiva e, no último retorno, 120 dias após a cirurgia, não apresentou nenhum déficit neurológico ou sinal de falha do implante nas imagens radiográficas; no entanto, não foi evidenciada fusão vertebral. Pelo conhecimento dos autores, esse é o primeiro relato de EMC disco-associada tratada por distração e estabilização com parafusos vertebrais (pediculares) em um cão. A fixação espinhal por meio do uso de parafusos vertebrais foi uma alternativa viável no caso apresentado.

ABSTRACT A 10-year-old male Rottweiler was evaluated for a 2-month history of recurrent forelimb weakness. Neurologic examination revealed proprioceptive ataxia, tetraparesis and moderate cervical pain. Diskassociated cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM) with static lesion at C3-4 was diagnosed based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The dog was surgically treated by a ventral slot procedure and distraction-stabilization of the vertebral bodies through insertion of vertebral screws with transverse connective bars. The patient had favorable clinical outcome. Neurologic assessment performed 120 days after surgery showed absence of neurologic defects. Radiographic assessment performed at the same time indicated adequate spinal cord decompression although vertebral fusion was not achieved. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of distraction-stabilization with vertebral (pedicle) screws to treat CSM in a dog. The treatment was well tolerated with no complications and excellent outcome and can be a viable option for this condition.

7 de nov de 2018

Efeitos adversos da morfina, metadona e tramadol no pós-operatório de cães submetidos à cirurgia da coluna vertebral: 180 casos (2011-2016)

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 38(7):1431-1437, julho 2018

Angel Ripplinger, Graciane Aiello , Rafael O. Chaves , Amanda O. Andrades , Diego V. Beckmann , Dakir Polidoro , André V. Soares e Alexandre Mazzanti


RESUMO: A dor pós-operatória em cães que são submetidos a cirurgias da coluna vertebral é considerada severa e seu manejo inadequado pode influenciar no tempo de recuperação  do paciente, na qualidade de vida e no resultado cirúrgico. Dentre os analgésicos indicados para uso no pós-operatório dessas cirurgias tem-se os opioides, que podem apresentar inúmeros efeitos adversos que requerem atenção. Devido à escassez de estudos clínicos acerca desse assunto em se tratando do pós-operatório de cães, objetivou-se com o presente estudo retrospectivo apresentar os efeitos adversos da morfina, metadona e tramadol utilizados no pós-operatório de cirurgias da coluna vertebral. Foram revisadas e avaliadas as fichas de 180 cães e anotadas as alterações observadas no pós-operatório e decorrentes do uso de opioides. Os principais efeitos adversos observados foram anorexia, hiporexia, vômito, salivação, vocalização, bradicardia, hipotermia, ofegação e sedação. Também foi observada persistência da dor em alguns cães mesmo com o uso de analgésicos. Houve diferença na ocorrência de anorexia nos cães tratados com morfina e nos tratados com metadona em relação aos tratados com tramadol. Ocorreu diferença também entre a observação de dor dos grupos morfina e tramadol. A associação de dipirona com morfina e com metadona não revelou diferença com relação à ocorrência de efeitos adversos, bem como a variação de doses. Conclui-se que a morfina, a metadona e o tramadol apresentam efeitos adversos quando empregados para tratamento da dor pós-operatória em cães submetidos à cirurgia da coluna vertebral; a anorexia, a hiporexia e o vômito foram os efeitos adversos frequentes com o uso de morfina e de metadona e, mesmo que o tramadol apresente menor ocorrência desses efeitos, seu uso, na dose estudada, pode não ser vantajoso quando se leva em consideração o grau de dor para cirurgias da coluna vertebral.

ABSTRACT: Postoperative pain in dogs undergone vertebral surgery is classified as severe and it’s important an adequate approach to it, because it can influence recovery time, quality of life and surgery outcome. Opioids are indicated for postoperative pain treatment in these surgeries. Opioids may have adverse effects that may require attention. There are few clinical studies that present the adverse effects of these analgesics in canine postoperative period. The aim of this retrospective study was to present the adverse effects of morphine, methadone and tramadol in canine vertebral surgery postoperative period. There were revised the postoperative records of 180 dogs and the changes resulted from the opioids use were noted. The adverse effects observed were anorexia, hyporexia, vomiting, vocalization, bradycardia, hypothermia, panting, sedation. Pain was also observed in some dogs. A significant difference was found in anorexia between dogs treated with morphine and tramadol and methadone and tramadol. Significant difference was also found in pain between dogs treated with morphine and tramadol. The association of metamizole and morphine or metamizole and methadone was not different in relation to the adverse effects. There was also no difference with the dosage variation and the adverse effects. In conclusion, morphine, methadone and tramadol have adverse effects when used for pain control in the postoperative period of dogs submitted to vertebral surgery. Anorexia, hypophagia and emesis were frequent the adverse effects observed with morphine and methadone and, despite tramadol presented less adverse effects, its use may be not beneficial in the studied doses when we consider the degree of pain, however more controlled studies with clinical situation are needed to confirm this.

5 de nov de 2018

Fisioterapia na recuperação funcional e qualidade de vida de cães paraplégicos por doença do disco intervertebral (Hansen tipo I) toracolombar submetidos à cirurgia descompressiva

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 38(8):1656-1663, agosto 2018

Amanda O. Andrades , Angel Ripplinger , Dênis A. Ferrarin , Graciane Aiello , Luciana Schneider , Marcelo L. Schwab e Alexandre Mazzanti


RESUMO: Este estudo retrospectivo incluiu cães paraplégicos com ausência de percepção a dor profunda secundário a doença do disco intervertebral toracolombar e submetidos à cirurgia descompressiva. Teve como objetivo comparar a  recuperação funcional e a qualidade de vida (QV) quando submetidos a um protocolo em um centro especializado ou a domicílio realizado pelo tutor. Vinte e oito cães foram distribuídos no grupo A (GA) e submetidos ao protocolo domiciliar e 38 denominados grupo B (GB) em um centro especializado. Recuperaram a habilidade de caminhar 43% dos cães em uma média de 40 dias de pós-operatório (PO) no GA e 42% em uma média de 36 dias no GB. Em 53% dos casos (35/66) os cães permaneceram paraplégicos sem percepção a dor profunda ao final do período de 90 dias de PO. Vinte e cinco tutores do GA e 26 do GB responderam um questionário sobre a QV, com no mínimo seis meses de PO. A avaliação do tempo de sobrevida dos animais, realização de eutanásia e nota atribuída a QV demonstraram que os cães do GB provavelmente foram beneficiados pelo estreito acompanhamento e orientação aos tutores até 90 dias PO.

ABSTRACT: The retrospective study included paraplegic dogs affected by thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease with absence of deep pain perception and submitted to a decompressive surgical technique. The aim was to compare functional recovery and quality of life (QOL) of dogs that underwent a home physiotherapy protocol to dogs that were cared in a specialized center. Twenty-eight dogs were placed in group A (GA, home physiotherapy protocol) and other 38 patients were placed in group B (GB, physiotherapy protocol in a specialized center). Forty three percent (43%) of the patients recovered the ability to walk in an average of 40 postoperative (PO) days in GA and 42% in an average of 36 days in GB. In 53% of the cases (35/66) the dogs remained paraplegic without deep pain perception at the end of physiotherapeutic protocols. Twenty-five owners from GA and 26 from GB answered a questionnaire about QOL, with a minimum of six PO months. The evaluation of the animals survival time, euthanasia and the QOL score demonstrated that dogs that underwent a physiotherapeutic treatment in a specialized center probably were benefited by the close monitoring and orientation to owners until 90 days of PO.

1 de nov de 2018

Avaliação laboratorial e nível sérico do fenobarbital administrado por diferentes vias em cão

Laboratory Evaluation and Serum Level of Phenobarbital Administered by Different Pathways in Dogs 

Gabriela Francisco Bittar , Gleice Laine de Souza , Gabriela Haro de Melo , Dayane Aparecida Francisco da Silva , José Sérgio Costa Júnior , Rogério Giuffrida & Rosa Maria Barilli Nogueira

Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2018. 46: 1587.



Background: Anticonvulsants are widely used in the treatment of small animals for the remission of isolated seizures and recurrent seizures in epilepsy, including tonic-clonic seizures and in status epileticus. Phenobarbital is the drug of choice for the management of epileptic seizures, it is considered very effective, safe, low cost and with few side effects. Several routes of administration may be used, with the oral, intravenous and intramuscular routes being the most common, with rectal and nasal routes being the least common. 
Materials, Methods & Results: Twenty mongrel dogs were used in the present study (aged 1 to 6-year-old, males and females, weighing 6.0 to 17.0 kg). The patients were previously evaluated via physical examination, temperature, respiratory and heart rate, laboratory tests (erythrogram and leukogram), and serum biochemistry by analyzing the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (FA), and gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT). Four experimental groups were established with five animals in each group: animals receiving intramuscular injections of phenobarbital (VIM), animals receiving nasal administration of phenobarbital (VN), animals receiving rectal administration of phenobarbital (VR), and animals receiving oral administration of phenobarbital (VO). Phenobarbital was administered every 12 h for 15 days. To determine the serum level of phenobarbital, 5 mL of jugular vein blood was collected in vacuum tubes for evaluation via hemogram. The serum level was determined after 15 days of continuous administration of phenobarbital, as stable phenobarbital serum levels can only be achieved from 10 to 15 days after the first administration. For the serum biochemistry evaluation, 10 mL of blood from the jugular vein was collected using vacuum syringes for assessing ALT, AST, GGT, and FA levels. Statistical analyses were performed with contrasted variation analysis using the Tukey method and paired t-test for comparison of time points. The level of significance was determined to be 5%. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) among drug administration routes, and among the levels of AST and AF enzymes after the first administration of phenobarbital via the nasal and intramuscular routes. Based on the results, it was concluded that hepatic alterations secondary to the use of phenobarbital for 15 days may occur with a low incidence. The phenobarbital serum concentration in dogs varied when administered via nasal, rectal, and intramuscular routes, but was stable when administered orally.
Discussion: The current results are consistent with those of previous studies, indicating that the chronic use of phenobarbital causes an increase in the serum levels of ALT and FA enzymes. It was found that phenobarbital serum levels varied greatly, particularly following nasal, rectal, and intramuscular administration. In the present study, serum phenobarbital levels were within the normal range when administered via the intramuscular, nasal, rectal, and oral routes. This result is inconsistent with that of previous studies where the serum levels were below the normal range following oral administration of phenobarbital. The serum concentration, rather than clinical criteria, should be used as a guide for treatment modification, as the distribution of this drug varies greatly among animals.

26 de out de 2018

Post mortem evaluation of spinal cord and protruded intervertebral discs in dogs without neurological abnormalities

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 38(9):1793-1799, setembro 2018

Carolina C. Zani , Paulo V.T. Marinho , Gabriel A.C. Diamante , Felipe A.R. Sueiro and Mônica V. Bahr Arias


ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to verify the presence of protrusion of the intervertebral disc (IVD) causing compression of the spinal cord and/or roots of cauda equina in 30 dogs above seven years of age with no evidence of previous neurological abnormalities. After the occurrence of death or euthanasia, a laminectomy was performed from C2 to the sacral vertebra to verify the presence of IVD protrusions. The protruded IVD were macroscopically graded according to the Thompson scale, and the corresponding spinal cord segment was histologically analyzed for nervous tissue compression. Of the 30 dogs, twelve (40%) presented disc protrusion, and of these 12 dogs, seven (58%) presented more than one protruded disc. Disc protrusion was observed in 3.2% (25/780) of all IVD evaluated. Of the six chondrodystrophic dogs, five (83%) presented disc protrusion. Of the 24 nonchondrodystrophic dogs, seven (29%) presented IVD protrusion. The site that showed the highest frequency of protrusion was L4-L5 (6/25) followed by the L6-L7 region (3/25) and C6-C7 (3/25). Only two of the medullary segments evaluated showed histological changes, with presence of focal lymphocytic infiltration and multifocal mild hemorrhage in the gray matter. Under the conditions of this study, 40% of dogs older than seven years old showed IVD protrusions without showing neurological signs, with no abnormality of the nervous tissue in 92% of the evaluated segments. Thus, the protrusion of the IVD in some dogs, can only be a finding of no clinical relevance.

 Avaliação post mortem da medula espinhal e de discos intervertebrais protrusos em cães sem alterações neurológicas

RESUMO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a presença de protrusão do disco intervertebral (DIV) causando compressão da medula espinhal e/ou raízes da cauda equina em cadáveres de cães, sem histórico de alterações neurológicas. Para isso, após a ocorrência de óbito ou realização de eutanásia em 30 cães com mais de sete anos de idade, sem histórico de alterações neurológicas, foi realizada a laminectomia entre C2 até a vértebra sacral para verificar a presença de protrusões do DIV. Os DIV protrusos foram graduados macroscopicamente quanto à degeneração segundo a escala de Thompson, e o segmentos medular correspondente à localização da compressão foi analisado microscopicamente em busca de lesões compressivas ao tecido nervoso. Quarenta por cento dos cães (12/30) apresentaram protrusão do DIV, e destes, 58% (7/12) apresentavam mais de um DIV protruso. A protrusão estava presente em 3,2% (25/780) de todos os DIV avaliados. Cães de raças condrodistróficas apresentaram protrusões em 83% dos casos (5/6) e raças não condrodistróficas em 29% (7/24). O local que apresentou maior frequência de protrusão foi L4-L5 (6/25), seguido da região L6-L7 (3/25) e C6-C7 (3/25). Apenas dois segmentos medulares avaliados na histopatologia apresentaram alterações, com presença de infiltrado linfoplasmocitário focal e hemorragia discreta multifocal na substância cinzenta. Nas condições do presente estudo, 40% dos cães com mais de sete anos de idade apresentaram protrusões do DIV sem que houvesse sinais neurológicos, com normalidade do tecido nervoso em 92% dos segmentos avaliados. Assim, a protrusão do DIV, em alguns cães, pode ser apenas um achado sem relevância clínica

23 de out de 2018

Análise do líquido cérebro-espinhal de três doenças do sistema nervoso central de cães

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 38(8):1649-1655, agosto 2018


Dakir N. Polidoro , Rosmarini P. Santos, Graciane Aiello , Rafael O. Chaves , Angel Ripplinger , Mathias R. Wrzesinski , Marcelo L. Schwab e Alexandre Mazzanti

Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo do líquido cérebro-espinhal de cães (LCE), atendidos pelo Serviço de Neurologia do Hospital Veterinário da Instituição, de 2004 a 2015, com o objetivo de analisar os resultados de cães com sinais neurológicos, comparar as alterações encontradas em dois locais de colheita no mesmo paciente e verificar se esse exame auxiliou o clínico em reforçar a suspeita clínica das principais doenças do sistema nervoso central. A pleocitose linfocítica esteve presente em 78,3% (29/37) das amostras de cães com cinomose e em 23,2% (10/43) de cães com DDIV.  Houve dissociação albuminocitológica (DAC) em 73% (19/26) das amostras de cães com tumores IC e em 64,3% (9/14) de cães com tumores envolvendo a ME. Em cães com DDIV, houve significância estatística entre o grau de disfunção neurológica e o total de células nucleadas (TCN) e total de proteínas (TP). Em 29 cães, houve a colheita do LCE da cisterna magna e da cisterna lombar e em 12 (41,4%) os resultados foram diferentes entre as duas amostras colhidas do mesmo cão, onde dois (6,9%) apresentaram alteração na amostra colhida cranial à lesão. Pode-se concluir que a pleocitose linfocítica foi a principal alteração encontrada no LCE de cães com cinomose e DDIV e DAC nas neoplasias, IC e ME, cães acometidos pela DDIV apresentaram sinais neurológicos mais severos conforme o TCN e o TP aumentaram e o LCE sofreu alteração, mesmo colhido cranial ao local da lesão e auxiliou o clínico em reforçar a suspeita clínica, mas não confirmou, as principais doenças neurológicas em cães.

Analysis of cerebral-spinal fluid of tree central nervous system diseases of dogs

ABSTRACT: A retrospective study including the analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of dogs neurologically affected was conducted by the Neurology Service of the Veterinary Hospital at the Institution, between 2004 and 2015. The aim of this study was to analyze the results of the CSF of dogs with neurological signs, and compare the changes in the CSF in two sampling sites in the same patient and see if this test helped the clinician to strengthen clinical suspicion of the major diseases of the central nervous system.  Lymphocytic pleocytosis was present in 78.3% (29/37) of samples from dogs with distemper and in 23.2% (10/43) of samples from dogs with IVDD. The albumin cytologic dissociation (ACD) was found in 73% (19/26) of samples from dogs with IC tumors and in 64.3% (9/14) from dogs with tumors involving the SC. For dogs with IVDD, there was statistical significance  between the degree of neurological dysfunction and the total nucleated cells (TNC) and total protein (TP). In 29 dogs, CSF was collected from the cistern magna and the lumbar and in 12 (41.4%) the results were different between the samples of the same dog, where two cases (6,9%) showed alterations in the sample collected cranial to the injury. It can be concluded that the lymphocytic pleocytosis was the main alteration found in the CSF of dogs with distemper and IVDD and ACD in tumors. Dogs affected by IVDD had more severe neurological signs as TNC and TP increased and the CSF was altered even collected cranial to the lesion site and helped the clinician to strengthen the clinical suspicion, but not confirm, the major neurological diseases in dogs.

27 de ago de 2018

Kernicterus in an Adult Dog

Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2018. 46(Suppl 1): 250.


Luciana Sonne , Djeison Lutier Raymundo , Bianca Santana de Cecco , Adriana da Silva Santos , Caroline Argenta Pescador , Eduardo Conceição de Oliveira1 & David Driemeier

Background: Kernicterus or bilirubin encephalopathy is a condition rarely observed in animal characterized by a yellowish discoloration of the central nervous system. It is a potentially fatal condition due to bilirubin neurotoxic effects caused by the increase of non-conjugated bilirubin pigment, which passes blood brain barrier and has been attributed to an imbalance between albumin and bilirubin levels. Intracellular bilirubin is toxic for cells and can cause decrease in protein synthesis, specially albumin, depression of cell respiration and cellular death. This paper describes kernicterus in a 2-year-old Great Dane female dog. 
Case: Clinically, the animal showed apathy, lethargy, weight loss and jaundice, which progressed to vomiting and neurological signs characterized by loss of consciousness and eventually coma. Blood parameters were within normal range, except for high levels of alanine aminotransferase (523 U/L), suggesting a liver lesion. The animal was submitted to euthanasia due to the poor prognosis, and at post-mortem examination it showed dehydration and severe jaundice, especially oral, vaginal and ocular mucosas, subcutaneous tissue and blood vessels intima surface. The liver had an accentuated lobular pattern, and the stomach mucosa was reddened. Multiple petechiae were observed in the epicardium, as well as icterus in the blood vessels of the heart. Furthermore, the brain and cerebellum cortex, thalamic region and nuclei region of brainstem showed extensive icteric areas. Microscopically, the liver presented a mononuclear portal hepatitis, centrilobular necrosis and presence of yellowish pigments. The brain had neuronal necrosis, mild vacuolization of the white matter, perineuronal edema and Alzheimer type II astrocytes, while cerebellum showed Purkinje cells necrosis. Hepatic cooper measurement was within range values, and direct imunofluorescence for the detection of Leptospira sp. was negative. 
Discussion: Kernicterus pathogenesis has been extensively studied, as the condition is commonly seen in neonatal humans. Diagnosis is based on gross and microscopic lesions in brain, which are consistent with bilirubin encephalopathy caused by the necrosis and degeneration of neurons. This condition is related to cases of intense hyperbilirubinemia, which exceeds the albumin binding capacity and, therefore, the excess of unconjugated bilirubin that can pass through the blood brain barrier. Liver disease causes deficient production of protein, especially albumin, decreasing the potential binding capacity to bilirubin, and consequently causing hyperbilirubinemia. In this case, the previously detected hepatic lesion suggested by liver enzymes increased, probably led to protein production dysfunction, causing hypoalbuminemia and hyperbilirubinemia. Unfortunately, albumin and bilirubin seric levels could not be measured. Decrease in albumin production along with the excess of unconjugated bilirubin caused the jaundice, and in cases like this one described, the blood brain barrier is compromised and the kernicterus occurs. Unconjugated bilirubin has negative effect in the glutamate uptake causing extracellular accumulation of it, which is consequently neurotoxic, causing necrosis and degeneration leading to a characteristic encephalopathy in animals with kernicterus. In this report, it was not possible to determine the primary hepatic disease, however this caused clinical neurotoxic disease, known as bilirubin encephalopathy.

24 de ago de 2018

Surgical Excision of an Osteochondroma in a Nerve Root of the Cauda Equina of a Dog

Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2018. 46(Suppl 1): 327


Juliana Campos de Barros , Larissa Garbelini Valentim , Raira Costa Dias , Alfredo Hajime Tanaka Pereira , Giovana Wingeter Di Santis & Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias


Background: Spinal neoplasms are classified into extradural, intradural/extramedullary or intramedullary. Intradural/extramedullary tumors include meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors, which arise from meninges or peripheral nerves around the spinal cord. Clinical signs are related to dysfunction of the involved nerve and include pain, nerve root signature and atrophy. Osteochondromas are benign tumors located within the bone, on its surface or in extra-osseous regions, when they are classified as soft tissue osteochondoma. The aim of this study is to describe a case of an osteochondroma in a nervous root of the cauda equina in a dog, whose surgical resection allowed the resolution of the clinical signs.
Case: A 12-year-old, male, Labrador Retriever dog, was presented with a 40-day history of progressive, painful, pelvic limb paresis, with no improvement when treated with analgesics and acupuncture. Neurological abnormalities included paraparesis, sometimes worse in the left pelvic limb, that was carried flexed at the level of the stifle, hindlimb atrophy, decreased interdigital reflexes and pain in the lumbar spinal region, mainly over L6 vertebra. Results of blood count and serum biochemical analysis were unremarkable. Computed tomography (CT) of the lumbosacral area was performed and the evaluation of images in transverse and reconstructed dorsal and sagittal planes allowed the visualization of a hyperattenuating and calcified round structure with 8 mm x 6 mm, in the left side of vertebral canal, at the level of caudal epiphysis of L6. Lumbosacral (L7-S1) CT abnormalities, as subchondral sclerosis, mild disc margin bulging, spondylosis deformans and foraminal proliferation were also observed but were considered clinically insignificant. Then, a dorsal L6 laminectomy was performed and after opening of the vertebral canal it was observed the presence of an ovoid mass, in the left side of the medullary cone, measuring approximately 0.9 cm in length, originating from a sacral nerve root. This structure was excised and submitted to histopathological evaluation. The dog improved after surgery without any complications, and neurological functions were gradually recovered. The histopathology of the mass was confirmed as an osteochondroma. Discussion: The history and neurologic examination findings as well the improvement after surgery were compatible with the lesion visualized by TC in L6, rather than the degenerative changes in L7-S1. Regarding the position of the mass, the main differential would be nerve sheath tumor, one of the most common types of primary neoplasia of the peripheral nervous system, however in a CT study in dogs with brachial plexus and nerve roots neoplasms, calcification of the tumor was not observed. Most of benign cartilaginous tumors of soft tissue are chondromas/osteochondromas, and this lesion should not be confused with multiple osteochondroma or multiple cartilaginous exostoses, which have been reported as multifocal, proliferative lesions involving the surface of ribs, vertebrae and pelvis of young dogs. If this lesion is unique, it is called osteochondroma. There are two reports of chondromas into the first lumbar vertebrae of dogs, with adherence to the floor of the vertebral canal and one report of an osteochondroma originated from the left pedicle of T11 in a cat. Radiculopathy and myelopathy caused by osteochondromas inside the spine are rare in humans and description of this tumor arising from nerve roots were not found in the veterinary literature. Probably the origin of the mass was metaplasia of the meninges surrounding the nervous root. In conclusion, neurological examination, CT and surgical exploration allowed the diagnosis and removal of a soft tissue osteochondroma, a rare benign tumor, with good patient recovery

21 de ago de 2018

Doenças do sistema nervoso central em cães

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 38(5):935-948, maio 2018


Maria T.S. Frade, Jefferson S. Ferreira , Maria J.R. Nascimento , Vitória V.F. Aquino , Isabel L. Macêdo , Rosileide S. Carneiro , Almir P. Souza e Antônio F.M. Dantas

RESUMO: São descritas doenças do sistema nervoso central (SNC) em cães diagnosticadas no sertão da Paraíba. Os registros de necropsia de 1.205 cães foram revisados. Em 354 casos (29,38%) foram registrados história clínica de alterações do sistema nervoso. Duzentos e noventa e seis casos tiveram diagnóstico definitivo e 58 foram inconclusivos. As doenças infecciosas foram observadas em 59,60% (211/354) de casos que representam a principal causa de distúrbios neurológicos; 53% dos casos (186/354) foram representadas por doenças virais; 3,11% (11/354) foram de etiologia parasitária, 2,54% (9/354) foram causadas por bactérias e 1,41% (5/354) por fungos. Os agentes físicos representaram a segunda causa mais importante de transtornos do SNC com 9,89% (35/354) e os tumores a terceira causa com 5,93% (21/354). Outras alterações pouco frequentes foram alterações metabólicas secundárias a insuficiência hepática ou renal, representando 2,54% (9/354). Casos raros de hidrocefalia congênita foram observados, 1,41% (5/354). Os casos de manifestações neurológicas associadas a alterações vasculares, degenerativas e inflamatórias não infecciosas, muitas das quais uma causa específica não foi estabelecida representaram 4,24% (15/354); Estavam dentro das seguintes categorias de doenças: Infartos isquêmicos e hemorrágicos (6/15), necrose vascular fibrinoide (5/15), doença do disco intervertebral (2/15), meningoencefalite granulomatosa (1/15) e granuloma de colesterol (1/15). Os distúrbios do sistema nervoso central representam uma importante causa de morte ou eutanásia em cães na região semiárida da Paraíba. Os sinais clínicos variaram de acordo com o agente envolvido, localização e distribuição das lesões. O conhecimento dos principais agentes que pode afetar o SNC canino é importante ao fazer uma lista de diagnóstico diferencial.

17 de ago de 2018

Estabilização vertebral segmentar modificada no tratamento de trauma medular em ouriço-cacheiro (Coendou spinosus): relato de caso

Arq. Bras. Med.Vet. Zootec., v.70, n.4, p.1221-1226, 2018


N.J. Tagliari , B.Z. Silva , E.A.R. Santos , M.E. Baier , P.C.S. Gonzalez , M.M. Alievi

RESUMO: Uma fêmea, adulta, de ouriço-cacheiro (Coendou spinosus, F. Cuvier, 1823), foi atendida com histórico de trauma medular. No exame neurológico, foi constatada paraplegia com nocicepção preservada e sinais compatíveis com choque espinhal. Exame radiográfico e mielografia apontaram presença de fratura e luxação vertebral torácica entre T10-11. O paciente foi submetido à técnica de estabilização vertebral segmentar modificada, com pinos de Steinmann e fios de cerclagem. A técnica utilizada mostrou-se eficaz na estabilização da fratura/luxação vertebral e na recuperação dos sinais neurológicos. O paciente apresentou recuperação progressiva da deambulação. Para o conhecimento dos autores, este é o primeiro relato utilizando estabilização vertebral segmentar modificada para o tratamento de fratura/luxação vertebral torácica em Coendou spinosus.

13 de ago de 2018

Modalidades fisioterapêuticas na reabilitação de cães com doença do disco intervertebral toracolombar submetidos à cirurgia descompressiva: 30 casos (2008-2016)

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.70, n.4, p.1089-1098, 2018


A.O. Andrades, G. Aiello , A.C.T. Colvero , D.A. Ferrarin , L. Schneider , A. Ripplinger1 , M.L. Schwab , A. Mazzanti

Este estudo retrospectivo teve como objetivo demonstrar as modalidades fisioterapêuticas empregadas no tratamento de cães com doença do disco intervertebral (DDIV) toracolombar após descompressão cirúrgica da medula espinhal, bem como relatar os fatores que determinaram as alterações das modalidades. Foram incluídos 30 cães que apresentavam sinais neurológicos desde paraparesia ambulatória a paraplegia com dor profunda na primeira sessão de fisioterapia. As modalidades utilizadas nos protocolos de todos os pacientes foram a crioterapia, massagem, alongamento passivo, movimentação passiva articular, estímulo do reflexo flexor e estimulação elétrica neuromuscular. A inclusão ou exclusão de exercícios terapêuticos, como a tipoia corporal, a plataforma proprioceptiva circular, a natação, a hidroesteira, os obstáculos e a caminhada em colchão, foi de acordo com a evolução clínica e a adaptação de cada paciente. Oitenta por cento (80%) dos cães alteraram o grau de disfunção neurológica antes de iniciar a fisioterapia e 93% retornaram à habilidade de caminhar (paraparesia ambulatória) ao final da fisioterapia. O número de sessões e o tempo de recuperação foram maiores quanto pior foi o grau de lesão do paciente.

8 de ago de 2018

Complicações observadas em cães e gatos com doenças neurológicas

Complications observed in dogs and cats with neurological diseases

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 38(6):1159-1171, junho 2018


Marina B. Santoro e Mônica V. Bahr Arias

RESUMO: Cães e gatos com problemas neurológicos estão sujeitos a várias sequelas e complicações, em decorrência das deficiências motoras, sensoriais e viscerais. Algumas complicações estão relacionadas a maior mortalidade, principalmente aquelas relacionadas ao trauma vertebromedular. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar nessas espécies a frequência do aparecimento de complicações, a epidemiologia, localização da lesão e etiologia, avaliando ainda a evolução e o tempo de sobrevida. Foram acompanhados 100 cães e gatos com doenças neurológicas trazidos para atendimento no Serviço de Neurologia do Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Estadual de Londrina. Observou-se que 91% dos animais desenvolveram complicações, sendo que as mais frequentes foram atrofia muscular (n=32), retenção urinária (n=24), incontinência urinária (n=24), incontinência fecal (n=17) e feridas de decúbito (n=16). O principal local de lesão associado ao aparecimento das complicações foi medula espinhal (91,3%) e a principal etiologia foi o trauma vertebromedular (37,3%). O tempo mediano e médio de vida estimado foram, respectivamente, dois e sete meses sendo que as principais causas de morte ou eutanásia estavam relacionadas ao trauma vertebromedular, trauma cranioencefálico ou doença inflamatória/infecciosa. O tempo de vida estimado foi menor para animais mais velhos e mais pesados. Embora o índice de sobrevivência dos animais com complicações tenha sido alto, muitos permaneceram com sequelas, indicando que a sobrevivência não significou capacidade funcional normal. Cães e gatos com problemas neurológicos requerem alto grau de atenção do veterinário e de seus tutores, sendo fundamental a orientação a respeito da real expectativa de recuperação e das dificuldades de manejo que poderão ser encontradas no curso da doença.

ABSTRACT:  Dogs and cats with neurological diseases can show several sequelae and complications asa result of motor, sensory and visceral deficiencies. Some complications are an important cause of mortality, mainly complications related to spinal cord injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate in 100 dogs and cats brought to the Neurology Service of Veterinary Hospital from Universidade Estadual de Londrina the frequency of complications, epidemiology, lesion localization and etiology, still assessing the evolution and survival time. It was observed that 91% of the animals developed complications. The most frequent were muscular atrophy (n=32), urinary retention (n=24), urinary incontinence (n=24), fecal incontinence (n=17) and pressure sores (n=16). The main site of injury associated with the onset of complications was spinal cord (91%) and the main cause was the spinal cord trauma (37.3%). The median survival time of animals with complications was two months and the mean was seven months. The main causes of death or euthanasia were related do spinal cord trauma, traumatic brain injury or inflammatory/infectious disease. The estimated lifetime was lower for older and heavier animals. Although the survival rate of animals with complications was high, most of them remained with sequelae, indicating that survival does not mean normal functional capacity. Dogs and cats with neurological problems require a high degree of attention of the veterinarian and their guardians, and guidelines regarding the real expectation of recovery and management difficulties that may be encountered in the course of the disease are essential.

6 de ago de 2018





Curtis W. DeweyProfessor Associado e Chefe da Seção de Neurologia/Neurocirurgia da Cornell University; Christine Thomson, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Department of Veterinary Medicine e  Ronaldo Casimiro da Costa, autores dos livros abaixo:

30 de jul de 2018

Dantrolene e células-tronco mesenquimais promovem melhora funcional em ratos Wistar com trauma espinhal agudo

Dantrolene and mesenchymal stem cells promote functional improvement in Wistar rats with spinal cord injury.

Bruno B.J. Torres, Bernardo C. Martins , Carla Maria O. Silva , Mário Sérgio L. Lavor , Sandro Coelho , Gabriela F. Siano e Eliane G. Melo


Pesq. Vet. Bras. 38(4):703-709, abril 2018

RESUMO: Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do dantrolene (DAN) e das células-tronco mesenquimais (CTM) no trauma espinhal agudo (TEA). Sessenta ratos Wistar foram divididos nos grupos CTM, DAN + CTM, DAN, trauma e placebo (TP) e sem trauma e placebo (STP). Realizou-se laminectomia de T12 em todos os grupos, seguida de TEA contusivo ∕ compressivo, com exceção do grupo STP. Uma hora depois, os grupos DAN + CTM e DAN receberam 10mg/kg de DAN. Após sete dias os grupos CTM e DAN + CTM receberam 1x106 células, por via intravenosa. Testes comportamentais foram realizados para avaliar a recuperação funcional durante 28 dias. Os animais traumatizados apresentaram paraplegia. Houve melhora funcional significativa nos grupos tratados com CTM, DAN ou associação DAN + CTM em comparação ao grupo TP. Conclui-se que o DAN e as CTM para tratamento de TEA em ratos apresentam efeitos neuroprotetores e promovem melhora neurológica funcional.

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dantrolene (DAN) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Sixty Wistar rats were divided into groups MSCs, MSCs + DAN, DAN, trauma and placebo (TP) and no trauma and placebo (STP). Laminectomy was performed at T12 level in all animals, followed by a weight-drop model of SCI, except for the STP group. An hour later, the MSCs + DAN and DAN groups received 10mg/kg of DAN. After seven days, the MSCs and MSCs + DAN groups received 1x106 cells intravenously. Behavioral tests were performed to assess functional recovery for 28 days. Traumatized animals showed paraplegia. There was a significant improvement in groups MSCs, DAN and MSCs + DAN compared to TP. It was concluded that DAN and MSCs for the treatment of SCI in rats have neuroprotection effect and promote functional neurological improvement.

23 de jul de 2018

Graduação histológica e aspectos clínico-patológicos relacionados em 22 meningiomas de cães

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 38(4):751-761, abril 2018


Histological grading and related clinical and pathological aspects of 22 canine meningioma

Walter V. Cardozo Areco , Taiara M. Silva , Stella M.P. Melo , Marcia C. Silva , Luiz Francisco Irigoyen , Rafael A. Fighera , Alexandre Mazzanti e Glaucia D. Kommers

ABSTRACT: Twenty two cases of meningiomas in dogs, diagnosed in about 18 years, were analyzed. The neoplasms were histologicaly classified and graded according to the World and Health Organization (WHO of 2007) for human meningiomas, adapted for dogs, in Grade I (G-I; benign), Grade II (G-II; atypical), and Grade III (G-III; anaplastic or malignant). Additional data about gender, age, breed, skull conformation, clinical course and signs, anatomic localization, gross and histological findings were obtained from the necropsy reports. Intracranial and supratentorial meningiomas were the most frequent in relation to the other intracranial or intraspinal sites. The intracranial ones were characterized mainly by clinical signs of thalamic-cortical alteration. Intraspinal ones were mainly characterized by ataxia. G-I meningiomas were the most frequent (63.6%) in dogs, followed by G-III (22.7%) and G-II (13.6%). GI were characterized by having the psammomatous subtype as the most frequent, more than one morphological pattern in the same tumor, one third presenting areas of invasion of nervous tissue, 71.4% of cases involving females, a mean age of 11 years, pure breed dogs as the most affected ones and for having the longest survival time after the manifestation of clinical signs. G-II meningiomas were characterized by having the chordoid subtype as the most frequent, invasion of nervous tissue in one third of cases, only females affected, a mean age of 12 years, two-thirds of the dogs affected were mongrels and the maximum survival time of 20 days. The G-III meningiomas were characterized by having the papillary subtype as the most frequent, invasion of the nervous tissue in 80% of the cases, 60% of the cases involving females, a mean age of 8 years, 80% of dogs affected were Boxers and the maximum survival time of 90 days. In conclusion, this study allowed to establish a relationship between the three histological grades observed in 22 cases of meningiomas in dogs with various clinical-epidemiological and pathological parameters, providing useful information for a better understanding of the correlation between the histological grading and the clinical evolution of these neoplasms.

RESUMO: Vinte e dois casos de meningiomas em cães, diagnosticados num período de aproximadamente 18 anos, foram revisados. Os neoplasmas foram graduados e classificados histologicamente de acordo com os critérios da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS de 2007) para meningiomas em humanos adaptados para cães, em Grau I (G-I; benignos), Grau II (G-II; atípicos) e Grau III (G-III; anaplásico ou maligno). Dos protocolos de necropsias foram retiradas adicionalmente informações referentes ao sexo, idade, raça, evolução clínica, sinais clínicos, localização anatômica e achados macroscópicos. Os meningiomas intracranianos supratentoriais foram os mais frequentes em relação às demais localizações intracranianas ou intraespinhais. Os intracranianos caracterizaram-se principalmente por sinais clínicos de alteração tálamo-cortical. Os intraespinhais caracterizaram-se principalmente por causarem ataxia. Meningiomas G-I foram os mais frequentes (63,6%) nos 22 cães, seguidos pelos G-III (22,7%) e G-II (13,6%). Os G-I caracterizaram-se por ter o subtipo psammomatoso como o mais frequente, mais de um padrão morfológico em um mesmo tumor, e um terço deles apresentando áreas de invasão do tecido nervoso, 71,4% dos casos acometendo fêmeas, uma média de idade de 11 anos, cães com raça definida como os mais acometidos e por ter o maior tempo de sobrevivência após a manifestação dos sinais clínicos. Os meningiomas G-II caracterizaram-se por ter o subtipo cordoide como o mais frequente, invasão do tecido nervoso em um terço dos casos, somente fêmeas acometidas, uma média de idade de 12 anos, dois terços dos cães acometidos sem raça definida e o tempo máximo de sobrevivência de 20 dias. Os meningiomas G-III caracterizaram-se por ter o subtipo papilar como o mais frequente, invasão do tecido nervoso em 80% dos casos, 60% dos casos acometendo fêmeas, uma média de idade de 8 anos, 80% dos cães acometidos da raça Boxer e o tempo máximo de sobrevivência de 90 dias. Este estudo permitiu estabelecer uma relação entre os três graus histológicos observados em 22 casos de meningiomas em cães com vários parâmetros clínico-epidemiológicos e patológicos, fornecendo informações úteis para um melhor conhecimento da correlação entre a graduação histológica e a evolução clínica desses neoplasmas.

16 de jul de 2018

Neoplasias encefálicas em 40 cães: aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos e patológicos

Rafael O. Chaves, João P.S. Feranti , Bruna Copat , Angel Ripplinger , Raqueli T. França , Glaucia D. Kommers , Rafael A. Fighera e Alexandre Mazzanti

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 38(4):734-740, abril 2018


RESUMO: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo de cães atendidos no Serviço de Neurologia (SN) do Hospital Veterinário Universitário (HVU), de 2006 a 2015, com o objetivo de identificar cães com neoplasias encefálicas e obter informações a respeito da raça, do sexo, da idade, dos sinais neurológicos, da localização, da evolução clínica, do tipo e origem do tumor e dos achados de exames complementares e de necropsia. Dos 40 cães com neoplasias encefálicas incluídos neste estudo, 67,5% foram classificadas como de origem primária. Cães sem raça definida e Boxers foram os mais acometidos. Os principais sinais clínicos observados incluíram crise epiléptica, alteração de comportamento e andar em círculo. A região tálamo-cortical foi a mais afetada. Quanto ao tipo do tumor, o meningioma (32,5%) e o oligodendroglioma (12,5%) foram os mais encontrados. A evolução dos sinais clínicos variou entre quatro e 210 dias (média de 44 dias).

ABSTRACT: A retrospective study including dogs with brain neoplasms was conducted at the Service of Neurology (SN) of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, from 2006 to 2015, with the objective to identify and characterize breed, sex, age, neurological signs, the location, the clinical evolution, the type and origin of the tumor and the findings of complementary examinations and necropsy. Of the 40 dogs with brain tumors included in this study 67.5% were classified as primary origin. Mixed breed dogs and Boxers were the most affected. The main clinical signs observed included seizures, behavioral changes and walk in circle. The thalamus-cortex region was the most affected. Regarding the type of the tumor, the meningioma (32.5%) and oligodendroglioma (12.5%) were the most common. The evolution of the clinical signs varied from four to 210 days (mean 44 days).

18 de jun de 2018

Sciatic Nerve Injection Palsy in a Dog: Electrodiagnostic Testing and Microsurgical Treatment

Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2018. 46(Suppl 1): 284.


Ana Carolina Mortari , Juliany Gomes Quitzan , Claudia Valéria Seullner Brandão & Sheila Canevese Rahal


Background: Iatrogenic damage to the ischiatic nerve is considered uncommon and may cause dysfunction with variable clinical signs dependent on type and severity of injury. Due to important role of this nerve in locomotion and weightbearing limb, a poor prognosis for recovery may be observed in many cases. Electromyography analysis may suggest the neuroanatomic localization, diagnosis information, and severity of lesion to determine better therapeutic intervention. Therefore, the aim of this report is to describe the possible cause, diagnosis and treatment of a postinjection ischiatic nerve injury in a dog with complete recovery. Case: A 3-year-old neutered male dachshund dog was referred to the Veterinary Hospital due to inability to weight support in the right hind limb after diminazene diaceturate intramuscular injection. The gait evaluation showed dropped-hock and knuckling into the digits of the right hind limb and neurologic examination revealed moderate muscle atrophy below to femorotibial joint of the right hind limb with sensory analgesia (superficial and deep) on the lateral, dorsal, and plantar surfaces, absent patellar reflex, and proprioceptive deficit. Electrophysiologic testing was done under general anesthesia in a 2-channel Nicolet Compass Meridian apparatus. Absence of compound muscle action potentials after right fibular and tibial nerve stimulations, and abnormal spontaneous activity in cranial tibial, gastrocnemius and deep digital extensor muscles were observed. A diagnosis of moderate/severe axonotmesis of sciatic nerve was achieved. Under microscope magnification, all adherent adjacent tissue and epineural sheat were removed. Due this, a small epineural window was created. On neurological examination performed 30 days after surgery, complete recovery of sensitivity of the right hind limb, and normal proprioception were observed. The muscle atrophy was also noted to have improved. Discussion: The ischiatic nerve mechanisms of injury include direct needle trauma, the drug or vehicle used for injection, or secondary constriction by scar, factors that may be associated to damage nerve observed in the present case. During a sciatic nerve injection, the combination of intrafascicular placement of a needle and high-pressure injection may cause severe fascicular damage and persistent neurologic deficits. In the present case, damage to the nerve probably was not caused by the injection needle, but due to injection agent. Chemical irritation or toxic reaction to the agent may cause different degrees of nerve injury. The electrophysiologic testing is an important tool for determining alteration of function and integrity of the axonal motor unit. In the present report, the electrophysiologic testing showed denervation potentials in the muscles innervated by the sciatic nerve (positive waves and fibrillation potentials), and the absence of compound muscle action potentials was indicative of severe axonal damage of the right ischiatic nerve. In human patients with postinjection ischiatic nerve injury, early surgical treatment with neurolysis or resection and anastomosis are the procedures recommended. In the present report, external neurolysis and epineural window were used showing excellent functional results. The epineural window was performed due to adherence of tissue and scar surrounding the nerve, permitting neural decompression.

14 de jun de 2018

Corpectomia lateral parcial para o tratamento de compressão ventral extradural crônica entre T9-T10 em um cão

Arq. Bras Med. Vet. Zootec., v.70, n.2, p.443-449, 2018


P.V.T. Marinho , C.R.A. Ferrigno , T. Bregadioli , F. Paes2 , J.F. Santos , A.S. Macedo , Í.S. Dal-Bó, V.S. Galeazzi

 RESUMO Objetivou-se relatar um caso de protrusão do disco intervertebral com localização atípica e descrever a técnica cirúrgica de corpectomia lateral parcial no tratamento da afecção em um cão. Um cão de sete anos de idade, macho, raça Pug, foi atendido com ataxia proprioceptiva dos membros pélvicos havia três meses, associada à doença do disco intervertebral entre a nona e 10ª vértebras torácicas. Após um mês de tratamento conservativo sem melhora, o paciente foi encaminhado para o tratamento cirúrgico, quando foi realizada corpectomia lateral parcial esquerda para descompressão da medula espinhal. Após a cirurgia, o paciente apresentou melhora considerável do quadro, sendo a técnica eficaz na remoção da compressão extradural, sem manipulação da medula espinhal ou outras complicações.

Partial lateral corpectomy for treatment of chronic ventral extradural compression between T9-T10 in a dog

ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to report a case of intervertebral disc protrusion with atypical location and describe the surgical technique of partial lateral corpectomy in the treatment of this disease in a dog. A dog, seven -years-old, male, Pug breed was attended with proprioceptive ataxia of the hind limbs for three months correlated with intervertebral disc disease between the 9th and 10th thoracic vertebrae. After a month of conservative treatment without improvements, the patient was referred for surgical treatment, which was performed as a partial left lateral corpectomy for decompression of the spinal cord. After surgery, the patient showed considerable improvement, this technique being shown to be effective in the removal of extradural compression, without manipulation of the spinal cord or other complications. 

11 de jun de 2018

Índice de normalidade da distância atlantoaxial dorsal em cães

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.70, n.2, p.429-436, 2018

E.A. Tudury, A.C. Silva, M.A.S. Lacerda, B.M. Araújo, M.M.A. Amorim, J.E.B. Leite

RESUMO Foram utilizados 30 cães neurologicamente saudáveis e realizadas radiografias da coluna cervical, sendo mensurada a menor distância atlantoaxial dorsal e outros parâmetros anatômicos vertebrais. Esses dados foram avaliados por meio do coeficiente de correlação de Pearson. Após detecção do melhor parâmetro de correlação, utilizou-se a fórmula de coeficiente de correlação dimensional (CCD). Na segunda etapa desta pesquisa, foram utilizadas imagens radiográficas de 33 cães com subluxação atlantoaxial (SAA) e aplicou-se a fórmula CCD. Todas as imagens atlantoaxiais normais e subluxadas foram distribuídas aleatoriamente e submetidas à análise subjetiva. Observou-se que o parâmetro anatômico de maior correlação foi o comprimento do processo espinhoso do áxis, obtendo-se valor de índice médio de 0,056 e desvio-padrão de 0,019. O valor de índice médio obtido em cães com SAA foi de 0,287, e o desviopadrão de 0,123. A análise subjetiva revelou acerto de 88,89% a 95,24%, enquanto a avaliação por meio da fórmula CCD demonstrou ser 100% eficiente no diagnóstico da SAA. Sugeriu-se a utilização da fórmula CCD para obtenção do índice de normalidade da distância atlantoaxial com valor de normalidade médio de 0,056 e limite máximo de 0,098, sendo esse índice eficaz no diagnóstico da subluxação entre o atlas e o áxis.

Normal index of dorsal atlantoaxial distance in dogs

ABSTRACT Thirty healthy dogs had their cervical spines radiographed, and the dorsal atlantoaxial distance and others vertebral anatomical parameters were measured. These data were assessed using the Pearson correlation coefficient. After detection of the best correlation parameter, we used the dimensional correlation coefficient of formula (CCD). In the second stage of the study, radiographs of the 33 dogs with atlantoaxial subluxation (SAA) were used. In each radiographic image, the CCD formula was applied. All normal and subluxation radiographic images were randomized, and submitted to subjective analysis. It was observed that the anatomical parameter with the highest correlation is the length of the spinous process of the axis, obtaining a mean value of 0.056 index and 0.019 standard deviation. Index mean value obtained in dogs with the disease of 0.287 and standard deviation of 0.123. The subjective analysis revealed 88.89% to 95.24% agreement, while the result obtained by the CCD formula was shown to be 100% effective in the diagnosis of SAA. We suggest the use of the CCD formula to obtain the index of normality of the atlantoaxial distance with a mean value of 0.056 and maximum of 0.098, and it is concluded that the index is highly effective in the diagnosis of subluxation between the atlas and the axis. 

7 de mai de 2018

A retrospective study of quadrigeminal arachnoid cysts diagnosed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography in 26 dogs

Pesq. Vet. Bras. vol.38 no.2 Rio de Janeiro Feb. 2018

Lidiane S. Alves; Diego RodriguezVânia M.V. Machado; Maria J. Mamprim; Luiz C. VulcanoRogério M. Amorim

ABSTRACT: Arachnoid cysts are accumulations of cerebrospinal fluid that occur within the arachnoid membrane due to the splitting or duplication of this structure. The aim of this retrospective study is to report the occurrence of this condition in 26 dogs, as well as to describe the findings of computed tomography imaging and magnetic resonance image scans and to correlate these with the clinical signs. A prevalence of the condition was observed in males, predominantly in the small breeds Miniature Pinscher and Shih Tzu, with age raging from 2 months to 9 years. The mainly clinical signs observed in these dogs were seizures and cerebellar ataxia. The study concluded that in 17 dogs the quadrigeminal arachnoid cyst was regarded as an incidental finding, in 6 dogs this condition was regarded as the determinant cause of the clinical signs, and in 3 dogs some clinical signs were associated with arachnoid cyst, but they also presented clinical signs involving others sites of intracranial lesion.

RESUMO: Cistos aracnoide são acúmulos de líquido cefalorraquidiano que ocorre dentro da membrana aracnoide devido à divisão ou duplicação desta estrutura. O objetivo desse estudo retrospectivo é relatar a ocorrência dessa condição em 26 cães, assim como descrever os aspectos de imagem pela tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética e correlacionar com os sinais clínicos. No estudo observamos a prevalência em machos, em raças de pequeno porte, com predomínio de Pinscher miniatura e Shih Tzu, com idade variando de dois meses a nove anos. Os principais sinais neurológicos observados nestes animais foram crises epiléticas e ataxia cerebelar. Foi possível concluir que em 17 cães o cisto aracnoide quadrigeminal foi considerado um achado incidental, em seis cães essa condição foi considerada a causa determinante dos sinais clínicos, e em três cães alguns sinais estavam associados com o cisto aracnoide, porém esses animais apresentaram sinais clínicos relacionados a outros sítios de lesão intracraniana.

16 de abr de 2018

Doenças neurológicas em gatos: 155 casos

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 38(1):107-112, janeiro 2018


Rafael O. Chaves, Monique Togni , Bruna Copat , João P.S. Feranti , Ana P. da Silva , Raqueli T. França , Rafael A. Fighera e Alexandre Mazzanti

 Foi realizado um estudo epidemiológico retrospectivo de gatos com doenças neurológicas atendidos em um Hospital Veterinário Universitário entre 2001 e 2014. O objetivo foi identificar e caracterizar a idade, o sexo, a raça, as doenças neurológicas e classificá-las de acordo com a região anatômica e o acrônimo DINAMIT-V. Foram observados 155 gatos com doenças neurológicas em 13 anos, sendo o diagnóstico confirmado em 112 gatos (72,2%) e presuntivo em 43 (27,8%). Gatos sem raça definida (77,9%) foram os mais comuns, seguido de gatos da raça persa e siamesa. Os locais mais afetados foram medula espinhal entre T3-L3 (28,4%) e tálamo-córtex (24,5%). A maioria dos gatos (43,9%) foi diagnosticada com doença traumática, principalmente trauma de medula espinhal, seguida de doença inflamatória/infecciosa (33,5%). Pode se concluir que a maior prevalência das doenças neurológicas de gatos envolve a medula espinhal e o tálamo-córtex, sendo as traumáticas as mais frequentes. Os dados obtidos podem auxiliar em futuros estudos sobre a frequência e a distribuição das principais doenças neurológicas em gatos.

Neurological diseases in cats: 155 cases.

A retrospective epidemiological study on neurological disease of cats was performed using data from cats admitted to a Veterinary Teaching Hospital from 2001 to 2014. The aim the study was to determine the age, sex race, and type of neurological disease affecting cats and identify these diseases according to the anatomical region and disease classes, specified under the acronym DINAMIT-V. One hundred and fifty five cats with neurological disease were observed during 13 years; the diagnosis was confirmed in 112 (72.2%) and was presumptive in 43 (27.8%). Mixed breed cats (77.9%) were the most commonly affected, followed by Persian and Siamese cats. The most affected anatomic sites were segments T3-L3 of the spinal cord (28.4%) and thalamic-cortical area (24.5%). Most cats (43.9%), were diagnosed with trauma, mainly spinal cord trauma, followed by inflammatory/infectious disease (33.5%). It is concluded that the neurological disorders in cats have higher prevalence in the spinal cord and thalamic-cortical areas and that the most frequent class of disease is trauma. Data obtained may assist future studies regarding neurological diseases in cats.

28 de fev de 2018

Metastatic osteosarcoma as a cause of hemorrhagic stroke in a dog

Thierry G. Cristo, Cristiane B. Vargas , Giovana Biezus , Leonardo S. Costa , Tainah P. Dal Pont , Cristina T. Kanamura , Fabiano. Z. Salbego , Sandra D. Traverso , Renata A. Casagrande

Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Pathology  2017, 10(3), 105 – 110


The aim of this case report is to describe an uncommon hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident (CVA) associated with an osteosarcoma (OSA) metastasis. Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is the acute onset of a neurological deficit from any change in blood supply resulting from a pathological process, characterizing a stroke and among all the causes, the neoplastic thrombus of osteosarcoma, specifically, is the most infrequent in clinical practice. A seven-year-old female midsize mixed-breed dog was submitted to a forelimb amputation for showing an osteoblastic OSA in proximal humerus. Three weeks later, the patient presented uninterruptible seizure and coma, resulting in death. At necropsy, it was observed a friable and reddish mass in the left frontal cortex which, microscopically was constituted by OSA metastasis in association with multiple ruptures of blood vessels and focally extensive severe bleeding, which caused a CVA. At immunohistochemistry, neoplastic cells of the humerus and the brain metastasis were positive for vimentin and osteonectin, confirming the diagnosis of osteoblastic OSA. The reports about OSA metastasis on the brain are rare in animals and humans, what could be related to the low frequency and few diagnosis ante and post-mortem. As uncommon as the description of OSA metastasis to the brain, is the CVA associated to them, demonstrating that reporting cases related to these clinical and anatomopathological lesions are important for the scientific community.

22 de jan de 2018

Extrusão de disco intervertebral caudal (coccígea) em um Basset Hound: primeiro relato de caso

D. Polidoro , L.F.D. Corrêa , R.P. Santos , G. Aiello , R.O. Chaves , R. Baumhardt , A. Ripplinger , A. Mazzanti

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.69, n.6, p.1485-1490, 2017


RESUMO Relata-se o primeiro caso no Brasil de doença do disco intervertebral (Hansen tipo I) entre as vértebras caudais (coccígeas) em uma cadela Basset Hound com seis anos de idade, castrada, pesando 16kg e com histórico de dor durante defecação e manipulação da região pélvica associada à inabilidade de mover, elevar ou abanar a cauda. Na radiografia simples, observou-se opacidade do forame intervertebral entre a quarta e a quinta vértebra caudal. O animal foi submetido à laminectomia dorsal modificada, seguida de fenestração do disco intervertebral afetado. Decorridos 15 dias da cirurgia, a paciente não demonstrava sinais de dor ao defecar e realizava movimentos de abano de cauda, mas ainda com desconforto na palpação e sem elevação da cauda acima da coluna vertebral, o que foi resolvido após 30 dias do procedimento cirúrgico. A relevância do caso está na inclusão, mesmo que rara, da doença do disco intervertebral caudal no diagnóstico diferencial em cães com dor durante a defecação e manipulação da cauda, sendo o exame radiográfico uma ferramenta auxiliar importante para o diagnóstico definitivo e o plano terapêutico. 

ABSTRACT We report here the first case in Brazil of an intervertebral disc disease (Hansen type I) between the caudal vertebrae (coccygeal) in a six-year-old Basset Hound dog, castrated, weighing 16 kg and history of pain during defecation and manipulation of the pelvic region, associated with the inability to move, raise and shake its tail. In the radiography survey, an opacity of the intervertebral foramen between the fourth and fifth caudal vertebra was observed. The animal underwent a modified dorsal laminectomy followed by fenestration of the affected intervertebral disc. After 15 days following surgery, the patient showed no signs of pain when defecating and was able to perform the tail wag movements, but with discomfort on palpation and could not rise the tail high up the spine, which was resolved after 30 days of surgery. The relevance of this report is the inclusion, even if rare, of the caudal intervertebral disc disease in the differential diagnosis in dogs with pain during defecation and handling of the tail, and the radiographic survey is an important auxiliary tool for definitive diagnosis and treatment plan for this disease. 

19 de jan de 2018

Sonda uretral flexível como método alternativo para aferição invasiva da pressão intracraniana em trauma cranioencefálico induzido em coelhos

G. Aiello , A.O. Andrades , A. Ripplinger , A.V. Soares , D. Polidoro , M.A.B. Vaz  , A.C.Colvero , R.P. Santos, R. Conceição , R.O. Chaves , A. Mazzanti

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.69, n.6, p.1551-1559, 2017


RESUMO : O objetivo deste estudo foi utilizar a sonda uretral flexível como método alternativo para aferição da pressão intracraniana em coelhos com trauma cranioencefálico induzido pelo cateter de Fogarty 4 Fr (balão epidural) e comparar os dados obtidos com o método convencional de cateter de ventriculostomia. Foram utilizados 12 coelhos, machos, adultos, distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos, denominados de G1: mensuração da PIC com cateter de ventriculostomia (n=6) e G2: mensuração com sonda uretral (n=6). Foram realizadas duas craniotomias na região parietal direita e esquerda para a implantação do cateter de ventriculostomia ou sonda uretral flexível e o balão epidural, respectivamente. A PAM, a PPC, a FC, a FR e a TR foram mensurados antes e após a craniotomia. A PIC foi avaliada após a craniotomia e a cada 10 minutos depois do preenchimento do balonete com 0,3mL de NaCl 0,9%, durante 40 minutos, e com 0,6mL, pelo mesmo período de tempo, totalizando 80 minutos. A PIC aumentou em ambos os grupos, sendo menores os valores registrados com a sonda uretral flexível. Foi possível reproduzir o aumento da PIC com o modelo experimental de TCE utilizando o cateter de Fogarty 4 Fr na região epidural e, embora haja a necessidade de outros estudos, a sonda uretral flexível demonstra ser um método alternativo de mensuração da PIC em coelhos com trauma cranioencefálico.

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of flexible urethral catheter as an alternative method for measuring intracranial pressure in rabbits with head trauma induced by 4 F Fogarty catheter (epidural balloon) and compare the data obtained with the conventional method of ventriculostomy catheter. In this study, New Zealand rabbits were randomly distributed into two groups, G1: measuring the ICP with ventriculostomy catheter (n=6) and G2: measuring the ICP with urethral catheter (n=6). Two craniotomies were performed in the right and left parietal region for the implantation of a ventriculostomy catheter and/or flexible urethral catheter and epidural 4 Fr Fogarty arterial embolectomy catheter, respectively. MAP, CPP, HR, RF and RT values were measured before and after of the craniotomy. The ICP value was measured after craniotomy, every five minutes during 40 minutes after the balloon was inflated with 0.3 ml with NaCl and further 40 minutes after the balloon was inflated with 0.6 ml. The ICP value increased in both groups; however, the ICP values were lower in the flexible urethral catheter. The flexible urethral catheter can be used as an alternative method to measure ICP values in rabbits with head injury. 

17 de jan de 2018

Consequences of intraoperative spinal cord manipulation in dogs with thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion

C.C. Diogo , E.A. Tudury , M.A. Bonelli , B.M. Araújo , M.L. de Figueiredo , T.H.T. Fernandes , A.C. Silva , D. Baraúna Júnior , C.R.O. Santos , M.M.A. Amorim , M.V. Bahr Arias

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.69, n.6, p.1473-1479, 2017


ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to evaluate if extradural contact during hemilaminectomy would cause neurological deterioration in the early and/or late postoperative period in dogs with intervertebral disc extrusion. Nineteen dogs with thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion underwent hemilaminectomy for spinal cord decompression and removal of extruded disc material. Meningeal contacts during surgery were quantified. Paraplegia (with nociception) and paraparesis were observed in 11/19 and 8/19 of dogs, respectively, before surgery. At the end of our study, only two (2/19) had paraplegia and one (1/19), paraparesis. There were more extradural contacts when extruded intervertebral disc material was at a ventrolateral position. Extradural contacts during surgery had no influence on neurological progression nor on time to recovery of motor function. Immediately (24 and 48 hours) after surgery, 13/19 dogs had the same neurological stage before surgery. At 7 and 90 days, 13/19 and 17/19 dogs, respectively, showed neurological improvement, compared with their preoperative stage. There was no influence of the number of extradural contacts on neurological recovery. These findings indicate that a careful inspection of the vertebral canal for removal of as much extruded disc material as possible does not cause neurologic deterioration.

RESUMO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar se contatos extradurais durante hemilaminectomia em cães com extrusão de disco intervertebral causariam piora neurológica no pós-operatório imadiato e/ou tardio. Dezenove cães com extrusão toracolombar de disco intervertebral foram submetidos à hemilaminectomia para descompressão medular e remoção do material extruso. Durante o procedimento cirúrgico, os contatos meningomedulares foram quantificados. Antes da cirurgia, 11/19 cães apresentavam paraplegia (com nocicepção) e 8/19 cães, paraparesia. Ao fim do estudo, apenas dois cães (2/19) mostravam paraplegia com dor profunda e um (1/19), paraparesia. Observou-se maior quantidade de contatos extradurais quando o material discal extruso encontrava-se em posição ventrolateral. Os contatos extradurais não mostraram influência estatística na evolução neurológica dos animais, bem como no tempo de recuperação das funções motora. Vinte e quatro e 48 horas após a cirurgia, 13/19 cães apresentavam o mesmo grau neurológico de antes da cirurgia. Após sete e 90 dias de pósoperatório, 13/19 e 17/19 demonstraram melhora neurológica em comparação com o pré-operatório, respectivamente. A quantidade de contatos extradurais não influenciou na recuperação neurológica dos cães. Esses achados indicam que uma inspeção minuciosa do canal vertebral pode ser recomendada, a fim de remover o máximo de material discal extruso, evitando-se piora neurológica por compressão medular. 

15 de jan de 2018

Neuromiopatia isquêmica em cinco cães (2008-2016)

 Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 37(9):971-976.2017


Angel Ripplinger , Rafael O. Chaves , Glaucia D. Kommers , Flavia S. da Luz , Dakir Polidoro , Rafael A. Fighera e Alexandre Mazzanti


 O objetivo deste estudo foi apresentar dados epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos de cinco cães com neuromiopatia isquêmica secundária a trombose ou tromboembolismo aórtico. Os cães eram fêmeas, com idade ≥11 anos, que apresentavam paraplegia (80%) ou monoplegia (20%) de membro pélvico. Em 40% dos casos (n=2) foi relatada claudicação previamente à disfunção motora. Os principais achados clínicos foram ausência de pulso femoral uni ou bilateral, extremidade de membros pélvicos frias, dor muscular acima da articulação do joelho e ausência de nocicepção (dor profunda) nos dígitos dos membros pélvicos. Quatro cães foram submetidos à eutanásia devido ao prognóstico desfavorável e um veio a óbito em menos de 24 horas de internação. Na necropsia foi encontrada alteração cardíaca em três cães, neoplásica em um e, sem causa determinante em outro caso. Os trombos estavam localizados na aorta abdominal e se estendiam até as artérias ilíacas. Mesmo sendo baixa a incidência, a neuromiopatia isquêmica deve ser incluída no diagnóstico diferencial de cães com claudicação, paraparesia ou paraplegia uni ou bilateral, quando os sinais neurológicos são compatíveis com lesão de neurônio motor inferior (L4-S3) e de evolução aguda ou crônica. A avaliação do pulso femoral digital e/ou por doppler vascular deve ser empregada e pode auxiliar no diagnóstico da doença evitando que os animais iniciem tratamento para outras afecções.

Ischemic neuromyopathy in five dogs (2008-2016)

This study aimed to present epidemiological, clinical and anatomopathological data of five dogs with ischemic neuromyopathy secondary to aortic thrombosis or thromboembolism. The dogs were females, with eleven years of age or more, that had paraplegia (80%) or hind limb monoplegia (20%). Forty percent of the cases (n=2) had lameness previously the motor disfunction. The main clinical findings include absence of unilateral or bilateral femoral pulse, cool hind limbs extremities, muscle pain above the knee joint and absence of nociception (deep pain) on the hind limbs digits. Four dogs were euthanized due to the poor prognosis, and the last one died within 24 hours of hospital admission. The necropsy findings were cardiac lesions in three dogs, neoplastic disease in one, and unknown cause on the other. The thrombi were located on the abdominal aorta, extending to the iliac arteries. Even with low incidence, the ischemic neuromyopathy should be included in the differential diagnosis of dogs with lameness, paraparesis, or unilateral or bilateral paraplegia, when neurological signs are compatible with lower motor neuron lesion (L4-S3) and acute or chronic progression. The digital and/or vascular doppler evaluation of the femoral pulse must be used and can assist on the disease diagnosis, avoiding treatments for other illnesses.

27 de nov de 2017

Abiotrofia cerebelar em um gato: relato de caso

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.69, n.5, p.1181-1185, 2017

Cerebellar abiotrophy in a feline: case report

M.O. Firmino , L.Â. Maia , C.C.F.S. Costa , L.M. Oliveira , A.F.M. Dantas


RESUMO: Um caso de abiotrofia cerebelar em um gato com 45 dias de idade foi diagnosticado no Laboratório de Patologia Animal, Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande. O animal apresentava, havia 15 dias, apatia, anorexia, desidratação, ataxia, hipermetria, espasticidade dos membros torácicos e pélvicos, tremores de intenção, nistagmo, opistótono, déficit proprioceptivo e ausência de resposta de ameaça. Clinicamente, havia a suspeita de hipoplasia cerebelar, e, devido ao prognóstico desfavorável, o animal foi eutanasiado. Na necropsia, não foram observadas alterações macroscópicas. Microscopicamente, as lesões estavam restritas ao cerebelo e caracterizavam-se por alterações neurodegenerativas e necróticas, com desaparecimento segmentar dos neurônios de Purkinje. Nessas áreas, também se verificaram espaços em branco, denominado aspecto de cesto vazio, resultantes da perda dos neurônios de Purkinje, além de raros esferoides axonais e proliferação dos astrócitos de Bergmann. Em algumas áreas, a camada granular estava hipocelular e havia moderada gliose multifocal na camada molecular. O diagnóstico de abiotrofia cerebelar foi realizado com base nos dados epidemiológicos, clínicos e, principalmente, pelas alterações histopatológicas dos neurônios de Purkinje características da doença. 

ABSTRACT: The aim of this report was to describe a case of cerebellar abiotrophy in cat with 45-year-old diagnosed at the Animal Pathology Laboratory, Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Campina Grande. The animal had presented 15-day apathy, anorexia, dehydration and neurological signs, characterized by ataxia, hypermetria, spasticity of fore and hindlimbs, intention tremor, nystagmus, opisthotonos, proprioceptive deficits, and absence of threat response. Clinically, cerebellar hypoplasia was suspected and the animal was euthanized due to poor prognosis. During necropsy, gross lesions were not observed. Microscopically the lesions were restricted to the cerebellum and were characterized by neurodegenerative and necrotic damage with segmental disappearance of the Purkinje cells. In these areas, there were also empty spaces, called the empty basket aspect, resulting from the loss of Purkinje cells, as well as rare axonal spheroids and proliferation of Bergmann's astrocytes. In some areas, the granular layer was hypocellular and there was moderate multifocal gliosis in the molecular layer. The diagnosis of cerebellar abiotrophy was based on epidemiological, clinical and mainly on histopathological changes in neurons of Purkinje disease characteristics. 

23 de nov de 2017

Avaliação clínica de cães com doença do disco intervertebral (Hansen tipo I) submetidos à descompressão cirúrgica: 110 casos

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 37(8):835-839, agosto 2017

Clinical evaluation of dogs with intervertebral disc disease (Hansen type I) submitted to surgical decompression: 110 cases.

Rafael O. Chaves, Dakir N. Polidoro , João P.S. Feranti , Andrei K. Fabretti , Bruna Copat , Lucas A. Gomes e Alexandre Mazzanti

Abstract: The aim of this study was to identify dogs with thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease (Hansen type I) submitted for surgical treatment on a routine service in neurology in a university veterinary hospital in 2006-2014, and to get information about age, sex, breed, site of extrusion, interpretation of myelography, evaluation of the degree of neurological dysfunction, functional recovery of these dogs, and to verify the recurrence of clinical signs of disease. The most common breed was Dachshund (69%), followed by mixed breed (14.5%). The most affected sites were between T12-T13 (31.9%) and L1-L2 (19.1%). Of the 110 dogs, 74 (67.3%) improved clinical signs after surgery, 54 (49.1%) satisfactory and 20 (18.2%), in part satisfactory. From these dogs, six (8.1%) dogs were in grade II, 19 (25.7%) in grade III, 35 (47.3%) in grade IV, and 14 (18.9%) in grade V. It can be concluded that satisfactory surgical treatment promotes functional recovery in most dogs with thoracolumbar disk extrusion. The prognosis for functional recovery after surgical treatment is better the lower the degree of neurological dysfunction and the recurrence percentage is lower in dogs subjected to this type of therapy.

Resumo: O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar cães com doença do disco intervertebral toracolombar (Hansen tipo I) submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico em um serviço de rotina em neurologia de um hospital veterinário universitário no período de 2006 a 2014, e obter informações a respeito da idade, do sexo, da raça, local da extrusão, interpretação da mielografia, avaliação dos graus de disfunção neuroló- gica, recuperação funcional desses cães e observar a ocorrência de recidiva dos sinais clínicos da doença. A raça mais frequente foi Dachshund (69%), seguida dos cães sem raça definida (14,5%). Os locais mais afetados foram entre T12- -T13 (31,9%) e L1-L2 (19,1%). Dos 110 cães, 74 (67,3%) tiveram melhora dos sinais clínicos após o procedimento cirúrgico, sendo 54 (49,1%) considerados satisfatórios e 20 (18,2%), parcialmente satisfatórios. Destes cães, seis (8,1%) cães estavam em grau II, 19 (25,7%) em grau III, 35 (47,3%) em grau IV e 14 (18,9%) em grau V. Pode-se concluir que o tratamento cirúrgico promove recuperação funcional satisfatória na maioria dos cães com extrusão de disco toracolombar. O prognóstico para recuperação funcional após o tratamento cirúrgico é tanto melhor quanto menor for o grau de disfunção neurológica e o percentual de recidiva é baixo em animais submetidos a este tipo de terapia.