29 de abr de 2015

Functional neurologic recovery in two dogs diagnosed with severe luxation of the vertebral column

Recuperação da função neurológica em dois cães com deslocamento grave da coluna vertebral

 Semina: Ciências Agrárias, Londrina, v. 36, n. 2, p. 901-908, mar./abr. 2015

Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias; Daniela Scapini Mendes; Nazilton de Paula Reis Filho

 Abstract: Traumatic injuries to the vertebral column, spinal cord, and cauda equina nerve roots occur frequently in human and veterinary medicine and lead to devastating consequences. Complications include partial or complete loss of motor, sensory, and visceral functions, which are among the main causes of euthanasia in dogs. The present case report describes neurological functional recovery in two dogs that were treated surgically for severe spinal fracture and vertebral luxation. In the first case, a stray, mixed breed puppy was diagnosed with thoracolumbar syndrome and Schiff-Scherrington posture, as well as a T13 caudal epiphyseal fracture with 100% luxation between vertebrae T13 and L1; despite these injuries, the animal did show deep pain sensation in the pelvic limbs. Decompression through hemilaminectomy and spinal stabilization with vertebral body pins and bone cement were performed, and the treatment was supplemented with physiotherapy and acupuncture . In the second case, a mixed breed dog was diagnosed with a vertebral fracture and severe luxation between L6 and L7 after a vehicular trauma, but maintained nociception and perineal reflex. Surgical stabilization of the spine was performed using a modified dorsal segmental fixation technique Both patients showed significant recovery of neurological function. Complete luxation of the spinal canal observed radiographically does not mean a poor prognosis, and in some cases, motor, sensory, and visceral functions all have the potential for recovery. In the first case the determining factor for good prognosis was the presence of deep pain perception, and in the second case the prognosis was determined by the presence of sensitivity and anal sphincter tone during the initial neurological examination.

Resumo: Lesões traumáticas à coluna vertebral, medula espinhal e raízes nervosas da cauda equina ocorrem frequentemente na medicina veterinária e humana, levando a sequelas devastadoras, como perda parcial ou completa das funções motoras, sensoriais e viscerais, sendo a ocorrência destas sequelas uma das principais causas de eutanásia em cães. O objetivo do presente trabalho é relatar a recuperação da função neurológica em dois cães com fratura vertebral e deslocamento do canal medular de mais de 100% tratados cirurgicamente. O primeiro caso ocorreu em um filhote de cão sem raça definida (SRD) encontrado na rua com síndrome toracolombar e presença de postura de Schiff-Scherrington, constatando-se fratura em epífise caudal do corpo vertebral de T13 com luxação grave entre as vértebras T13 e L1, porém o animal apresentava sensibilidade dolorosa profunda em membros pélvicos. O tratamento utilizado neste caso foi descompressão através de hemilaminectomia e estabilização da coluna com pinos nos corpos vertebrais e cimento ósseo, além de fisioterapia e acupuntura. O segundo caso ocorreu em cão SRD atropelado, que apresentou fratura e luxação entre L6, L7 e grande desvio entre os fragmentos, que porém apresentava nocicepção e reflexo perineal preservado. O tratamento realizado foi a estabilização da coluna através da técnica de fixação segmentar dorsal modificada. Ambos os pacientes apresentaram recuperação significativa da função neurológica, permanecendo com discreta paresia de membros posteriores. O deslocamento de 100% do canal vertebral à avaliação radiográfica não significa prognóstico ruim, havendo em alguns casos chance de recuperação das funções motoras, sensoriais e viscerais. No primeiro caso o fator determinante para o bom prognóstico foi a presença de percepção da dor profunda, e no segundo caso, o prognóstico foi determinado pela presença de sensibilidade e tônus no esfíncter anal durante o exame neurológico inicial.


13 de abr de 2015

Diagnóstico presuntivo de embolismo fibrocartilaginoso em 12 cães

Presumptive Diagnosis of Fibrocartilaginous Embolism in 12 Dogs
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2013. 41(Suppl 1): 25

Rafael Oliveira Chaves, Diego Vilibaldo Beckmann, Rosmarini Passos dos Santos, Amanda Oliveira Andrades, Matheus Macagnan, Graciane Aiello, André Vasconcelos Soares & Alexandre Mazzanti

 Background: Fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy is a syndrome of spinal cord infarction caused by fi brocartilaginous emboli identical to the nucleus pulposus of intervertebral disk. The signals were acute and not progressive, asymmetric in 92% and neuroanatomic regions were affected C6-T2 (n = 2), L3-T3 (n = 5) and L4-S3 (n = 5). The diagnosis was based on history, fi ndings on physical and neurological examination and exclusion of differential diagnosis. The aim of this study was to report twelve dogs treated at Hospital Veterinário Universitário (HVU), Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM) with a presumptive diagnosis of fi brocartilaginous embolism. Cases: Seven males and fi ve females dogs were referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the Federal University of Santa Maria: three rottweiler dogs, two labradors retrievers, one fi la brasileiro, one chow-chow, one boxer, one schnauzer, one German shepherd, one mixed breed and one greyhound, aged between one year and three months and eleven. In all cases, the owners reported during the anamnesis partial or complete loss of movement of member(s) involved(s) acutely with no history of trauma. For anatomical localization of the lesion was performed neurological examination. As complementary exams were requested blood count, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, and radiography of the spine. Contrast radiography (myelography) and cerebrospinal fl uid analysis were performed only in eight dogs. Front of the historical, clinical fi ndings, neurological and complementary exams the presumptive diagnosis was fi brocartilaginous embolism. The dogs were subjected to passive physical therapy and showed satisfactory clinical improvement in the first month after onset of clinical signs. Discussion: The myelopathy fi brocartilaginous embolism is commonly reported in dogs of large and giant breed. In this study, 92% were of large breeds. The mean age of onset of clinical signs in this study was 4.5 years, and male dogs, the most affected, result similar to that found in other studies. Neurological signs vary depending on the location and severity of ischemic lesions of the spinal cord and asymmetric signals in 55% to 61% of the dogs. Of the twelve dogs of this study, signals were asymmetric and eleven of them were affected neuroanatomic regions C6-T2 (n = 2), L3-T3 (n = 5) L4-S3 (n = 5). In other studies, the most affected areas were T3-L3 and L4-S3. Intensive physical activity seems to be involved in about half the cases of embolism few hours. Except for two dogs of breed rottweiler and SRD in this study, all had a history of physical activity at the onset of clinical signs. There were no changes in blood count, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, and radiography of the spine in the twelve dogs. With the exception of four dogs, the other underwent contrast radiography (myelography) and cerebrospinal fl uid analysis and only in German Shepherd and Labrador was observed intramedullary compression standard to myelography and mild lymphocytic pleocytosis and increased protein in the CSF, respectively. Diagnosis of fi brocartilaginous embolism cases in this study was based on history, fi ndings on physical and neurological examination, exclusion of differential diagnosis by laboratory tests and clinical evolution. In ten dogs of this study, was performed only physical therapy and nine of them were observed clinical signs of recovery between one and fi ve weeks. The study brings to clinical relevance, the importance of fi brocartilaginous embolism in the differential diagnosis of dogs with a history of acute loss of limb movements, with or without asymmetry, non-progressive, no pain on palpation of the spine. This may be favorable prognosis in patients with signs of recovery during the first month.

8 de abr de 2015

Prednisona e meloxicam no tratamento de ratos submetidos ao trauma agudo da medula espinhal

Prednisone and meloxicam in the treatment of rats underwent to acute spinal cord injury

 Graciane Aiello, Alexandre Mazzanti, Diego Vilibaldo Beckmann, Rosmarini Passos dos Santos, Amanda Oliveira de Andrades,Heloisa Einloft Palma, Cinthia Melazzo de Andrade, André Vasconcelos Soares

 Ciência Rural, Santa Maria, v.45, n.1, p.124-130, jan, 2015


RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito da prednisona e do meloxicam na terapia de ratos submetidos ao modelo experimental de trauma agudo da medula espinhal, induzida pelo cateter de Fogarty 2Fr, mediante a avaliação dos parâmetros de estresse oxidativo, dos testes neurológicos e do exame histopatológico da medula espinhal. Foram utilizados 90 ratos Wistar, distribuídos em seis grupos, denominados controle salina ou GCS (n=15), controle prednisona ou GCP (n=15), controle meloxicam ou GCM (n=15), trauma mais salina ou GTS (n=15), trauma mais prednisona ou GTP (n=15) e trauma mais meloxicam GTM (n=15). Cada grupo foi redistribuído em três subgrupos de igual número, de acordo com o tempo de tratamento no pós-operatório de 24h, 72h e sete dias. Todos os grupos foram submetidos à laminectomia e, nos grupos GTS, GTM e GTP, após a exposição da medula espinhal, foi realizado o trauma medular compressivo, utilizando o cateter de Fogarty 2Fr. Os grupos GCS e GTS foram tratados com solução salina, os GSM e GTM receberam meloxicam e os GSP e GTP prednisona, sendo administrados pela via intraperitoneal. Em todos os ratos, foram avaliados os parâmetros de estresse oxidativo, testes neurológicos e exame histopatológico da medula espinhal. Os animais dos grupos GTS, GTM e GTP, nos diferentes tempos (24h, 72h e sete dias), tiveram pontuação zero na escala de Basso, Beattie e Bresnahan (BBB); no plano inclinado, permaneceram com pontuação três e perderam a percepção da dor profunda. Os grupos GTM e GTP apresentaram menor atividade da catalase e de níveis de TBARS, quando comparado ao grupo GTS. Foi constatada degeneração Walleriana e necrose da substância cinzenta de intensidades variáveis, não apresentando diferença entre os grupossubmetidos ao trauma. O meloxicam e a prednisona apresentam possível efeito antioxidante, mas não impedem a necrose e a degeneração Walleriana da medula espinhal de ratos.

 ABSTRACT The aim of the study was investigate the use of the prednisone and meloxicam in treatment of rats underwent to the experimental model of acute spinal cord injury with 2Fr Fogarty catheter, with evaluation of the oxidative stress, neurological test and histopathological analysis of the spinal cord. Ninety rats were separated into six equal groups denominated saline control or SCG, prednisone control or PCG, meloxicam control or MCG, saline and injury or STG, prednisone and injury PTG and meloxicam and injury MTG. Each group was divide into three subgroups according to treatment time in the postoperative period of 24h, 72h and seven days. All the rats underwent laminectomy and in the groups STG, MTG and PTG, after exposure of the spinal cord it was performed a compressive spinal cord injury with a 2Fr Fogarty catheter. The SCG and STG were treated with saline, MSG and MTG, with meloxicam and PSG and PTG with prednisone. All rats were evaluated for oxidative stress, neurological tests and histopathology of the spinal cord. Neurological tests were performed with Basso, Beattie e Bresnahan score (BBB), inclined plane and deep pain 24 hours before and after surgery and repeated every 48 hours until the day of euthanasia. The groups STG, MTG and PTG in the different times were zero point in the BBB scale and three points in the inclined plane and absence of deep pain. MTG and PTG had lower catalase activity and TBARS levels when compared to the STG. In the histopathological analysis it was found Wallerian degeneration and necrosis of gray matter of intensity variation. Meloxicam and prednisone can exhibit antioxidant effect, but the necrosis and Wallerian degeneration were not stop in rats underwent to acute spinal cord injury




3 de abr de 2015

Remoção de pino de Steinmann intra-abdominal por videolaparoscopia em um cão

Laparoscopic removal of a Steinmann pin from the peritoneal cavity in a dog

Ísis dos Santos Dal-Bó, Rafael Stedile, Márcio Poletto Ferreira, Fernanda Silveira Nóbrega, Marcelo Meller Alievi, Luciana Machado da Silva, Elisa Barp Neuwald, Simone Tostes Oliveira, Carlos Afonso de Castro Beck

 Ciência Rural, Santa Maria, v.43, n.2, p.314-317, fev, 2013

RESUMO: Durante a avaliação radiográfica aos 60 dias de pós-operatório de estabilização vertebral em um cão, foi observada a presença de um pino de Steinmann intraabdominal. Foi realizada cirurgia laparoscópica para inspeção cavitária e remoção do objeto. O implante estava envolvido pelo omento, não sendo observados sinais de infecção. O procedimento foi executado em 15 minutos e permitiu mínimo trauma. Os autores não encontraram relatos da migração desse tipo de implante para a cavidade peritoneal em cães com sucessiva remoção videocirúrgica. 

 ABSTRACT An intra-abdominal Steinmann pin was detected during a radiographic assessment of the 60th post- operative day of a vertebral stabilization in a dog. Laparoscopic inspection and retrieval of the foreign body were performed. The implant was surrounded by omentum with no noticeable signs of infection. The procedure was performed within 15 minutes with minimal trauma. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of this kind of implant migration to the peritoneal cavity followed by laparoscopic removal in dogs.

1 de abr de 2015

CRANIOPLASTY FOR REPAIR OF CRANIOSCHISIS ASSOCIATED WITH MENINGOCELE IN A JERSEY CALF

CRANIOPLASTY FOR REPAIR OF CRANIOSCHISIS ASSOCIATED WITH MENINGOCELE IN A JERSEY CALF

 Vet. e Zootec. 2014 set.; 21(3): 392-398.

 José Paes Oliveira Filho, Peres Ramos Badia, Andreza Pimenta Oliveira, Luis Emiliano Cisneros Álvarez, Jorge Luiz Oliveira Costa

 ABSTRACT Cranioschisis with meningocele at the parietal region was diagnosed in a 2-day-old calf. At presentation the animal was standing, attentive and had normal suckling reflex. However, an ovoid, soft, slightly lateral, bladder-like mass was observed extending from the intercornual protuberance to the insertion of the nuchal ligament. Physical examination and radiographs evidenced a deformity of the parietal bone and cranioplasty using a cartilage homograft was performed in an attempt to correct the bone defect. The calf did well postoperatively until day nine. However apathy and seizures were present from day 13 leading to death on day 15