14 de nov de 2018

[Aspectos patológicos e das imagens de ressonância magnética de um glioma misto em um cão: relato de caso]

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.70, n.5, p.1383-1387, 2018

T.M. Granato , L.P. Mesquita , R.C. Costa , J.P. Andrade Neto , P.C. Maiorka

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RESUMO O objetivo deste relato foi descrever as características patológicas e das imagens de ressonância magnética de um glioma misto canino. Um cão de 12 anos de idade da raça Boxer foi submetido à necropsia. As imagens obtidas ante mortem por ressonância magnética foram analisadas, e nelas se observou uma lesão prosencefálica com contornos pouco definidos, sinal hiperintenso nas imagens ponderadas em T2, hipointenso nas imagens ponderadas em T1, e heterogeneamente hiperintenso em T2- FLAIR. Havia discreto realce desuniforme ao contraste, evidente desvio da linha média, edema perilesional moderado e marcada distorção do ventrículo lateral adjacente. O encéfalo foi avaliado macroscopicamente, microscopicamente e imuno-histoquimicamente. Macroscopicamente, havia uma massa pobremente demarcada, com áreas de hemorragia, nos lobos parietal e temporal esquerdos. Histologicamente, havia uma massa densamente celular, composta por duas populações de células neoplásicas distintas separadas geograficamente. A primeira população era composta por células pequenas e redondas, organizadas com aspecto de favo de mel. A segunda população era constituída por feixes entrelaçados de células neoplásicas fortemente imunomarcadas para a proteína fibrilar ácida glial (GFAP). O diagnóstico de glioma misto foi obtido com base nos achados imaginológicos e, principalmente, em suas características histológicas e imuno-histoquímicas. 


Magnetic resonance imaging and pathological features of a mixed glioma in a dog: case report 

ABSTRACT -  The aim of this report was to describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pathological features of a canine mixed glioma. A 12-year-old boxer male dog was presented for necropsy along with data from an MRI evaluation conducted ante-mortem. The images were examined and showed a poorly demarcated prosencephalic lesion, hyperintense on T2W images, hypointense on T1W images and heterogeneously hyperintense on T2W FLAIR images. There was mild nonuniform contrast enhancement, apparent midline shift, moderate perilesional edema and marked distortion of the adjacent lateral ventricle. The brain was evaluated macroscopically, microscopically and immunohistochemically. Grossly, there was a poorly demarcated soft mass, with areas of hemorrhage, within the left parietal and temporal lobes. Histologically, there was a densely cellular mass composed of two geographically distinct populations of neoplastic cells. The first population was composed of small and round cells organized in a honeycomb pattern. The second population constituted of intermingled streams and bundles of neoplastic cells that were strongly immunolabeled for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The diagnosis of a mixed glioma was based on MRI findings, and mainly on histological and immunohistochemical findings. 


9 de nov de 2018

Uso de parafusos vertebrais para distração e estabilização espinhal em um cão com espondilomielopatia cervical disco-associada: relato de caso

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.70, n.5, p.1427-1432, 2018

P.V.T. Marinho , A.S. Macedo , C.R.A. Ferrigno , I.S. Dal-Bó , F. Paes , T. Bregadioli

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RESUMO Um cão, macho, adulto, Rotweiller de 10 anos de idade, foi atendido com histórico de claudicação do membro torácico esquerdo com evolução para fraqueza havia aproximadamente dois meses. Ao exame neurológico, observou-se ataxia proprioceptiva nos quatro membros e dor cervical moderada. Mediante ressonância magnética, espondilomielopatia cervical disco-associada com a característica estática da compressão C3-C4 foi diagnosticada. Realizou-se cirurgia descompressiva por meio de slot ventral e estabilização-distração com o uso de parafusos vertebrais e barras conectoras. O paciente apresentou evolução clínica favorável do quadro. A evolução foi progressiva e, no último retorno, 120 dias após a cirurgia, não apresentou nenhum déficit neurológico ou sinal de falha do implante nas imagens radiográficas; no entanto, não foi evidenciada fusão vertebral. Pelo conhecimento dos autores, esse é o primeiro relato de EMC disco-associada tratada por distração e estabilização com parafusos vertebrais (pediculares) em um cão. A fixação espinhal por meio do uso de parafusos vertebrais foi uma alternativa viável no caso apresentado.

ABSTRACT A 10-year-old male Rottweiler was evaluated for a 2-month history of recurrent forelimb weakness. Neurologic examination revealed proprioceptive ataxia, tetraparesis and moderate cervical pain. Diskassociated cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM) with static lesion at C3-4 was diagnosed based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The dog was surgically treated by a ventral slot procedure and distraction-stabilization of the vertebral bodies through insertion of vertebral screws with transverse connective bars. The patient had favorable clinical outcome. Neurologic assessment performed 120 days after surgery showed absence of neurologic defects. Radiographic assessment performed at the same time indicated adequate spinal cord decompression although vertebral fusion was not achieved. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of distraction-stabilization with vertebral (pedicle) screws to treat CSM in a dog. The treatment was well tolerated with no complications and excellent outcome and can be a viable option for this condition.

7 de nov de 2018

Efeitos adversos da morfina, metadona e tramadol no pós-operatório de cães submetidos à cirurgia da coluna vertebral: 180 casos (2011-2016)

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 38(7):1431-1437, julho 2018

Angel Ripplinger, Graciane Aiello , Rafael O. Chaves , Amanda O. Andrades , Diego V. Beckmann , Dakir Polidoro , André V. Soares e Alexandre Mazzanti

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RESUMO: A dor pós-operatória em cães que são submetidos a cirurgias da coluna vertebral é considerada severa e seu manejo inadequado pode influenciar no tempo de recuperação  do paciente, na qualidade de vida e no resultado cirúrgico. Dentre os analgésicos indicados para uso no pós-operatório dessas cirurgias tem-se os opioides, que podem apresentar inúmeros efeitos adversos que requerem atenção. Devido à escassez de estudos clínicos acerca desse assunto em se tratando do pós-operatório de cães, objetivou-se com o presente estudo retrospectivo apresentar os efeitos adversos da morfina, metadona e tramadol utilizados no pós-operatório de cirurgias da coluna vertebral. Foram revisadas e avaliadas as fichas de 180 cães e anotadas as alterações observadas no pós-operatório e decorrentes do uso de opioides. Os principais efeitos adversos observados foram anorexia, hiporexia, vômito, salivação, vocalização, bradicardia, hipotermia, ofegação e sedação. Também foi observada persistência da dor em alguns cães mesmo com o uso de analgésicos. Houve diferença na ocorrência de anorexia nos cães tratados com morfina e nos tratados com metadona em relação aos tratados com tramadol. Ocorreu diferença também entre a observação de dor dos grupos morfina e tramadol. A associação de dipirona com morfina e com metadona não revelou diferença com relação à ocorrência de efeitos adversos, bem como a variação de doses. Conclui-se que a morfina, a metadona e o tramadol apresentam efeitos adversos quando empregados para tratamento da dor pós-operatória em cães submetidos à cirurgia da coluna vertebral; a anorexia, a hiporexia e o vômito foram os efeitos adversos frequentes com o uso de morfina e de metadona e, mesmo que o tramadol apresente menor ocorrência desses efeitos, seu uso, na dose estudada, pode não ser vantajoso quando se leva em consideração o grau de dor para cirurgias da coluna vertebral.

ABSTRACT: Postoperative pain in dogs undergone vertebral surgery is classified as severe and it’s important an adequate approach to it, because it can influence recovery time, quality of life and surgery outcome. Opioids are indicated for postoperative pain treatment in these surgeries. Opioids may have adverse effects that may require attention. There are few clinical studies that present the adverse effects of these analgesics in canine postoperative period. The aim of this retrospective study was to present the adverse effects of morphine, methadone and tramadol in canine vertebral surgery postoperative period. There were revised the postoperative records of 180 dogs and the changes resulted from the opioids use were noted. The adverse effects observed were anorexia, hyporexia, vomiting, vocalization, bradycardia, hypothermia, panting, sedation. Pain was also observed in some dogs. A significant difference was found in anorexia between dogs treated with morphine and tramadol and methadone and tramadol. Significant difference was also found in pain between dogs treated with morphine and tramadol. The association of metamizole and morphine or metamizole and methadone was not different in relation to the adverse effects. There was also no difference with the dosage variation and the adverse effects. In conclusion, morphine, methadone and tramadol have adverse effects when used for pain control in the postoperative period of dogs submitted to vertebral surgery. Anorexia, hypophagia and emesis were frequent the adverse effects observed with morphine and methadone and, despite tramadol presented less adverse effects, its use may be not beneficial in the studied doses when we consider the degree of pain, however more controlled studies with clinical situation are needed to confirm this.

5 de nov de 2018

Fisioterapia na recuperação funcional e qualidade de vida de cães paraplégicos por doença do disco intervertebral (Hansen tipo I) toracolombar submetidos à cirurgia descompressiva

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 38(8):1656-1663, agosto 2018

Amanda O. Andrades , Angel Ripplinger , Dênis A. Ferrarin , Graciane Aiello , Luciana Schneider , Marcelo L. Schwab e Alexandre Mazzanti

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RESUMO: Este estudo retrospectivo incluiu cães paraplégicos com ausência de percepção a dor profunda secundário a doença do disco intervertebral toracolombar e submetidos à cirurgia descompressiva. Teve como objetivo comparar a  recuperação funcional e a qualidade de vida (QV) quando submetidos a um protocolo em um centro especializado ou a domicílio realizado pelo tutor. Vinte e oito cães foram distribuídos no grupo A (GA) e submetidos ao protocolo domiciliar e 38 denominados grupo B (GB) em um centro especializado. Recuperaram a habilidade de caminhar 43% dos cães em uma média de 40 dias de pós-operatório (PO) no GA e 42% em uma média de 36 dias no GB. Em 53% dos casos (35/66) os cães permaneceram paraplégicos sem percepção a dor profunda ao final do período de 90 dias de PO. Vinte e cinco tutores do GA e 26 do GB responderam um questionário sobre a QV, com no mínimo seis meses de PO. A avaliação do tempo de sobrevida dos animais, realização de eutanásia e nota atribuída a QV demonstraram que os cães do GB provavelmente foram beneficiados pelo estreito acompanhamento e orientação aos tutores até 90 dias PO.

ABSTRACT: The retrospective study included paraplegic dogs affected by thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease with absence of deep pain perception and submitted to a decompressive surgical technique. The aim was to compare functional recovery and quality of life (QOL) of dogs that underwent a home physiotherapy protocol to dogs that were cared in a specialized center. Twenty-eight dogs were placed in group A (GA, home physiotherapy protocol) and other 38 patients were placed in group B (GB, physiotherapy protocol in a specialized center). Forty three percent (43%) of the patients recovered the ability to walk in an average of 40 postoperative (PO) days in GA and 42% in an average of 36 days in GB. In 53% of the cases (35/66) the dogs remained paraplegic without deep pain perception at the end of physiotherapeutic protocols. Twenty-five owners from GA and 26 from GB answered a questionnaire about QOL, with a minimum of six PO months. The evaluation of the animals survival time, euthanasia and the QOL score demonstrated that dogs that underwent a physiotherapeutic treatment in a specialized center probably were benefited by the close monitoring and orientation to owners until 90 days of PO.

1 de nov de 2018

Avaliação laboratorial e nível sérico do fenobarbital administrado por diferentes vias em cão

Laboratory Evaluation and Serum Level of Phenobarbital Administered by Different Pathways in Dogs 

Gabriela Francisco Bittar , Gleice Laine de Souza , Gabriela Haro de Melo , Dayane Aparecida Francisco da Silva , José Sérgio Costa Júnior , Rogério Giuffrida & Rosa Maria Barilli Nogueira

Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2018. 46: 1587.

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ABSTRACT

Background: Anticonvulsants are widely used in the treatment of small animals for the remission of isolated seizures and recurrent seizures in epilepsy, including tonic-clonic seizures and in status epileticus. Phenobarbital is the drug of choice for the management of epileptic seizures, it is considered very effective, safe, low cost and with few side effects. Several routes of administration may be used, with the oral, intravenous and intramuscular routes being the most common, with rectal and nasal routes being the least common. 
Materials, Methods & Results: Twenty mongrel dogs were used in the present study (aged 1 to 6-year-old, males and females, weighing 6.0 to 17.0 kg). The patients were previously evaluated via physical examination, temperature, respiratory and heart rate, laboratory tests (erythrogram and leukogram), and serum biochemistry by analyzing the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (FA), and gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT). Four experimental groups were established with five animals in each group: animals receiving intramuscular injections of phenobarbital (VIM), animals receiving nasal administration of phenobarbital (VN), animals receiving rectal administration of phenobarbital (VR), and animals receiving oral administration of phenobarbital (VO). Phenobarbital was administered every 12 h for 15 days. To determine the serum level of phenobarbital, 5 mL of jugular vein blood was collected in vacuum tubes for evaluation via hemogram. The serum level was determined after 15 days of continuous administration of phenobarbital, as stable phenobarbital serum levels can only be achieved from 10 to 15 days after the first administration. For the serum biochemistry evaluation, 10 mL of blood from the jugular vein was collected using vacuum syringes for assessing ALT, AST, GGT, and FA levels. Statistical analyses were performed with contrasted variation analysis using the Tukey method and paired t-test for comparison of time points. The level of significance was determined to be 5%. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) among drug administration routes, and among the levels of AST and AF enzymes after the first administration of phenobarbital via the nasal and intramuscular routes. Based on the results, it was concluded that hepatic alterations secondary to the use of phenobarbital for 15 days may occur with a low incidence. The phenobarbital serum concentration in dogs varied when administered via nasal, rectal, and intramuscular routes, but was stable when administered orally.
Discussion: The current results are consistent with those of previous studies, indicating that the chronic use of phenobarbital causes an increase in the serum levels of ALT and FA enzymes. It was found that phenobarbital serum levels varied greatly, particularly following nasal, rectal, and intramuscular administration. In the present study, serum phenobarbital levels were within the normal range when administered via the intramuscular, nasal, rectal, and oral routes. This result is inconsistent with that of previous studies where the serum levels were below the normal range following oral administration of phenobarbital. The serum concentration, rather than clinical criteria, should be used as a guide for treatment modification, as the distribution of this drug varies greatly among animals.