31 de out de 2017

Aspectos terapêuticos de cães com diagnóstico presuntivo de epilepsia idiopática

Graciane Aiello , Amanda Oliveira de Andrades , Angel Ripplinger , Dakir Polidoro , Rafael Oliveira Chaves , Priscila Ferreira & Alexandre Mazzanti

http://www.ufrgs.br/actavet/45/PUB%201453.pdf

Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2017. 45: 1453

ABSTRACT
Background: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition characterised by recurrent epileptic seizures. Various antiepileptic drugs are used for the management of canine idiopathic epilepsy. Phenobarbital is the drug of choice for long-term treatment in dogs. Although it is well tolerated, phenobarbital can cause liver injury if administered alone or in combination with other drugs. Therefore, the main of this study was to identify dogs with presumptive diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy and information about the antiepileptic drugs, the dose and frequency of administration, period of treatment, frequency of the seizure before and after start the treatment, complementary exams and adverse effects. Materials, Methods & Results: In this study were included 21 dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. All dogs were examined and having blood taken for blood count, biochemical tests (ALT, AST, AP, total protein, albumin, creatinine, urea, amylase, lipase, cholesterol and triglycerides), measurement of serum phenobarbital and/or potassium bromide and, some dogs, free T4 by dialysis and canine TSH. In this study, it was observed monotherapy (phenobarbital) in 76.19% (16/21), double therapy (phenobarbital and potassium bromide) in 19.05% (4/21) and triple therapy (phenobarbital, potassium bromide and gabapentin) in 4.76% (1/21) of dogs. The phenobarbital was used as monotherapy with dose between 1.4 and 12 mg kg-1 and the median of serum concentration was 26.41 μg kg-1. There was significant reduction in the frequency of the seizure after start the treatment. There was refractory to antiepileptic drugs in two dogs (9.5%). In blood analysis, there was increase serum activities of AP (23.81%) and ALT (14.20%), decrease total protein (42.29%), hypoalbuminemia (9.5%) and it was not increased AST activities. The main adverse effects were nodularliver damage and hypothyroidism. Discussion: In most cases of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy, monotherapy is preferred, because it tends to avoid complications that may arise from drug interactions and may also improve compliance by providing a simple treatment regimen. In this study, the phenobarbital controlled the seizures when used as monotherapy. It is considered success of an antiseizure drug when there is a reduction of seizure frequency by at least 50%, with minimal drug side effects. Approximately 20-30% of dogs with epilepsy do not have satisfactory seizure control or experience intolerable adverse effects with appropriate conventional medical treatment. In this study, there was refractory to antiepileptic drugs in 9.5%, one dog treated with phenobarbital and other with phenobarbital and potassium bromide. The long-term use of phenobarbital causes increase in liver enzymes, ALT and, mainly, ALP, these are attributed to enzymatic induction and to low degree of liver damage. ALT and AP increased the values and this does not necessarily indicate clinically significant liver damage or the need to stop therapy. The risk of liver toxicity appears to be greater with concentrations higher than 35 μg mL-1 or when multiple potentially hepatotoxic drugs are used. Other factors associated to the long-term use of anticonvulsant, such phenobarbital, potassium bromide or both, for the treatment of idiopathic epilepsy in dogs is acute pancreatitis and hypothyroidism. In this study, it was not observed acute pancreatitis, but there were two dogs with hypothyroidism. The long-term use of phenobarbital did not cause significant side effects, even with changes in the biochemical tests.

9 de out de 2017

Aparência tomográfica dos discos intervertebrais mineralizados em cães da raça Dachshund Miniatura

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.69, n.4, p.941-947, 2017

link

D. Baraúna Júnior , T.H.T. Fernandes , I.C.C. Silva , M.A. Bonelli , C.R.O. Santos , M.M.A. Amorim, F.S. Costa , E.A. Tudury

RESUMO: Objetivou-se com este trabalho descrever os aspectos de tomografia computadorizada de discos intervertebrais de cães da raça Dachshund com um ano de idade, assim como quantificar, qualificar e localizar a mineralização nos componentes do DIV e no espaço intervertebral da coluna vertebral. Dez cães dessa raça, com um ano de idade, foram submetidos à tomografia computadorizada (TC). Nas imagens de reconstrução sagital dos animais, procedeu-se à identificação de sete DIV em cada animal, entre as vértebras T9 e L3, totalizando a análise de 70 DIV. Entre os DIV mineralizados, a presença da alteração foi determinada quanto à localização no núcleo pulposo (NP), no anel fibroso (AF) e em AF/NP. Dos 70 DIV avaliados, 45 foram considerados como mineralizados. Entre os classificados como mineralizados, 20% (9/45), 17,8% (8/45) e 62,2% (28/45) estavam localizados nas regiões do NP, AF e AF/NP, respectivamente. A mineralização encontrada neste estudo esteve caracterizada por aumento de atenuação radiográfica com densidade mineral na topografia do DIV, havendo variações da localização e da radiodensidade de área calcificada entre animais e DIV no mesmo indivíduo. As alterações relativas à mineralização dos DIV podem ser classificadas tomograficamente quanto à localização da alteração no disco em AF, NP e AF/NP. 

5 de out de 2017

Prevalência de alterações comportamentais em cães idosos

Ciência Rural, Santa Maria, v.47: 02, e20151645, 2017
link

Denis Jeronimo Svicero Marta Cristina Thomas Heckler, Rogério Martins Amorim

RESUMO: Devido à melhora na nutrição e na medicina veterinária, há mais cães idosos do que antes. Infelizmente, acompanhando este crescimento na população geriátrica, houve um aumento no número de cães demonstrando distúrbios de comportamento e senilidade aparente. Entretanto, muitos dos proprietários têm considerado todos esses sinais decorrentes de uma inevitável velhice. O objetivo deste estudo foi obter a prevalência de sinais clínicos relacionados com alterações comportamentais na população canina idosa, atendida no Hospital Veterinário da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da UNESP. Proprietários de 800 cães idosos responderam um questionário sobre desorientação, alterações na interação social, perda de treinamento (urina e/ou defeca em locais não habituais), alterações no ciclo sono-vigília, atividade física, memória, aprendizagem, consciência e percepção. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo apresentaram uma prevalência de alterações comportamentais na população canina idosa significativa, variando de 22,3% dos cães, com pelo menos seis alterações comportamentais e, chegando a 90,7% com pelo menos uma alteração de comportamento, sendo alterações na atividade física (58,5%) e perda de treinamentos adquiridos (30,2%) os grupos de maior percentual relatado pelos proprietários. Conclui-se que a prevalência de alterações comportamentais relacionadas com o envelhecimento da população canina é alta, sendo importante incluir questões sobre as alterações comportamentais durante as consultas clínicas veterinárias regulares para identificar, o mais precocemente possível, estes sinais clínicos e realizar ações para investigar as possíveis causas de déficit cognitivo, incluindo doenças neurológicas, como a Síndrome de Disfunção Cognitiva canina. 

ABSTRACT: Owing to improvements in animal welfare, such as in nutrition, preventive medicine, and diagnostic tools, older dogs have become increasingly more prevalent than before. Unfortunately, there is an increasing number of dogs presenting behavioral changes correlated with this growth in the geriatric population. However, many of these owners consider these signs as normal for old age. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of clinical signs related with behavioral changes in the canine geriatric population admitted to the Veterinary Hospital of the Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science College of Universidade Estadual Paulista. The owners of 800 old dogs completed a questionnaire about disorientation, changes in social interaction, loss of training (house soiling), changes in the wake-sleep cycle, physical activity, memory, learning, consciousness, and perception. The results showed that the prevalence of behavioral changes in the canine geriatric population was 90.7% of dogs that presented at least one of these behavioral changes, and 22.3% with at least six changes, and with changes in physical activity (58.5%) and loss of acquired training (30.2%) being the highest percentage groups that were reported by the owners. We concluded that the prevalence of behavioral changes related with aging in the canine geriatric population was high, and that it was important to include questions about behavioral changes during regular veterinary clinical appointments to identify these clinical signs earlier and investigate the possible causes of the cognitive impairment, including neurological diseases, such as Canine Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome.